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  • Author or Editor: Mohamed Moustafa x
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Authors: Mohamed Abdelsalam, Mamdouh Y. Elgendy, Mohamed Shaalan, Mohamed Moustafa and Masayuki Fujino

Accurate and rapid identification of bacterial pathogens of fish is essential for the effective treatment and speedy control of infections. Massive mortalities in market-sized red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) were noticed in mariculture concrete ponds in northern Egypt. Histopathological examination revealed marked congestion in the central vein of the liver with the presence of bacterial aggregates inside the lumen and in the vicinity of the central vein. A total of 12 isolates of streptococci were obtained from the moribund fish. This study documented the ability of the MicroSeq 500 16S bacterial sequencing method to accurately identify Streptococcus agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae mixed infections from moribund red tilapia that were difficult to be recognised by the commercial biochemical systems. The continuously decreasing cost of the sequencing technique should encourage its application in routine diagnostic procedures.

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Simple, accurate, precise, sensitive, and validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC)‒densitometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM), pseudoephedrine HCl (PSE), and ibuprofen (IBF) in tablet dosage form. In method A, reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC analysis was performed on Zorbax C8 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size i.d.), using a mobile phase consisting of methanol–acetonitrile–distilled water (pH 4) using orthophosphoric acid in the ratio (80:10:10, v/v) and flow rate of 0.7 mL min−1. Quantification was achieved with ultraviolet (UV) detection at 220 nm. In method B, TLC analysis was carried out on an aluminum-backed sheet of silica gel 60 F254 layer using ethyl acetate‒methanol‒ammonia (8:2:0.8, v/v) as the mobile phase. Quantification was carried out with UV detection at 262 nm. The validation of the proposed methods was applied according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The suggested methods were successfully applied for the determination of the cited drugs in bulk powder and commercial dosage form.

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Segregating F4 families from the cross between drought sensitive (Yecora Rojo) and drought tolerant (Pavon 76) genotypes were made to identify SSR markers linked to leaf chlorophyll content, flag leaf senescence and cell membrane stability traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under water-stressed condition and to map quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the three physiological traits. The parents and 150 F4 families were evaluated phenotypically for drought tolerance using two irrigation treatments (2500 and 7500 m3/ha). Using 400 SSR primers tested for polymorphism in testing parental and F4 families genotypes, the results revealed that QTL for leaf chlorophyll content, flag leaf senescence and cell membrane stability traits were associated with 12, 5 and 12 SSR markers, respectively and explained phenotypic variation ranged from 6 to 42%. The SSR markers for physiological traits had genetic distances ranged from 12.5 to 25.5 cM. These SSR markers can be further used in breeding programs for drought tolerance in wheat.

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Authors: Z. M. H. Kheiralla, S. S. Maklad, Sanaa Mohamed Ashour and E. El-Sayed Moustafa

Abstract

The study of the bacteriological profile, the association of complement C3, interleukin-1beta, and zinc therapy of diabetic foot ulcers (type two) was investigated. Twenty diabetics without foot ulcers (group I), 50 diabetics with foot ulcers (group II), and 10 matched normal controls (group III) were enrolled in this study. Diabetic foot ulcers were mostly of grade 2. The most frequent organisms were Clostridium spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, respectively. Vancomycin, Imipenem, and Meropenem were the most effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobes, while Imipenem, Meropenem and Chloramphenicol for Gram-positive anaerobes. Group II had abnormal levels of C3 (72%). A significant higher concentration of C3 was found in group II. Group II had abnormal levels of IL-1β (60%). A significant higher concentration of IL-1β was found in group II. Zinc therapy (25 mg/day/oral) induced a highly significant decrease in the frequency of Gram-positive anaerobes and levels of IL-1β. Significantly increases all mineral concentrations in serum level except Mn+2. The study highlights the prevalence of antibiotic multidrug resistant bacteria causing foot infections in diabetics which require combined antimicrobial therapy. Altered levels of serum complement C3 and IL-1β might be responsible for depressed immune response which might be causes for delayed wound healing and repeated infections. Zinc supplementation may help in healing the wounds by enhancing the immune response.

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Two sensitive, specific, and selective stability-indicating chromatographic methods were developed for the determination of cyclobenzaprine HCl (CZ) and asenapine maleate (AS) in pure forms, in the presence of their degradation products and in their pharmaceutical formulations. The first method was an isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Analysis was performed on cyano column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile–(0.05 m) potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 3 ± 0.1) (70:30, v/v) with a flow rate of 1.5 mL min−1 and ultraviolet (UV) detection at 290 nm for the determination of CZ, and methanol–(0.05 m) potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 6 ± 0.1) (70:30, v/v) with a flow rate of 1.5 mL min−1 and UV detection at 220 nm for the determination of AS. The second method was thin-layer chromatography (TLC), using silica gel 60 F254 plates and toluene–methanol–chloroform-ammonia solution 33% (5:3:6:0.1, by volume) as the mobile phase for the two drugs. The spots were scanned densitometrically at 290 and 220 nm for the determination of CZ and AS, respectively. The methods were validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines, and the acceptance criteria for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, and system suitability were met in all cases. The linearity ranges were 2.5–25 μg mL−1 for the RP-HPLC method and 5–50 μg band−1 for the TLC method for both drugs. The limits of detection for the RP-HPLC method were 0.250 and 0.578 for CZ and AS, respectively, while the limits of quantification were 0.758 and 1.572 for CZ and AS, respectively. The limits of detection for the TLC method were 1.355 and 1.284 for CZ and AS, respectively, while the limits of quantification were 4.472 and 3.891 for CZ and AS, respectively. The results were compared statistically at a 95% confidence level with the reported methods. There were no significant differences between the mean percentage recoveries and the precisions of the two methods.

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Estimation of seismic wave attenuation in the shallow crust in terms of coda wave Q structure previously investigated (Sayed et al. 2002) in the vicinity of Cairo Metropolitan area was improved using seismograms of local earthquakes  recorded by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN). The seismic wave attenuation was measured in the study area from the time decay of coda wave amplitudes on narrow bandpass filtered seismograms on the basis of the single scattering theory. The frequency bands of interest are from 1.5 Hz to 18 Hz. In general, the values obtained for paths and events foci and El-Fayoum (FYM) and Wadi Hagul Sations (HAG) are very similar for all frequency bands. A regional attenuation law Q c = 85.66 f 0.79 was obtained.

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