Eight compounds were isolated and identified from the soil-inhabiting fungus Aspergillus fumigatus 3T-EGY, namely, stearic acid (1), α-linolenic acid (2), physcion (3), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (4), 2,4,5,17-tetramethoxy pradimicin lactone (5), 3,5-dihydroxy-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoyl-2H-chromen-2-one (6), juglanthraquinone A-5-O-d-rhodosamine-(4′→1″)-2-deoxy-d-glucose (4″→1″′)-cinerulose B (7), and micropeptin (8). Their structures were determined on the basis of one-dimensional (1D-) and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) [1H-, 13C-NMR, 1H-1H COSY (COrrelated SpectroscopY), and 1H-13C HMBC (Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation) spectroscopy]. Compound 7 showed moderate in vitro antimicrobial activity against three pathogenic strains with inhibition zones values were ranged from 9.0 to 10.66 mm compared to neomycin as a positive control with inhibition zones values were ranged from 14.0 to 19.0 mm.
Different solvent extracts of the aerial parts of Senna italica (Mill.) were investigated for their chemical constituents and biological activities. Moreover, bio-guided fractionation led to isolation and identification of six compounds, namely: physcion (1), emodin (2), 2-methoxy-emodin-6-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), 1-hydroxy-2-acetyl-3-methyl-6-hydroxy-8-methoxynaphthalene (tinnevellin) (4), quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (rutin) (5), and 1,6,8-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene (6). The chemical structures of these compounds were established via 1D and 2D 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts as well as compound 3 were evaluated for their anticancer activity against tumor cell lines. The tested extracts showed a moderate to weak activity, while compound 3 showed a moderate activity against human liver cancer (Hep G2) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines with IC50 values of 57.5 and 42.3 μg/mL, respectively. Both ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts exhibited antimicrobial activities with different strengths, i.e., ethyl acetate exhibited antimicrobial activity against seven test microbes while n-butanol extract showed antimicrobial activity against all tested microbes. This is the first report for the isolation of compound 3 as a new compound from S. italica growing in Egypt.