Spinach, (Spinacia oleracea L.) is a popular vegetable. The hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of spinach (EESO) was studied against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress (OS) and liver injury in rats. Pretreatment of rats with EESO, at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 21 consecutive days significantly prevented the CCl4-induced hepatic damage as indicated by the serum marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, ALP and GGT) and bilirubin levels. Parallel to these changes, the leaves extract also prevented CCl4-induced OS in rat liver by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (LPO) and restoring the levels of antioxidant non-enzymatic biomarker, such as total protein (TP) and non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) in liver tissue. The biochemical changes were consistent with the histological findings of the liver tissue suggesting marked hepatoprotective effect of the leaves extract in a dose-dependent manner, besides, a significant reduction was also observed in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice. The results of spinach extract were comparable to that of silymarin. The protective effect of the EESO against CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity could be attributed to the potent antioxidant constituents of the spinach.
Authors:Saleh Alqasoumi, Mohammed Al-Dosari, Mohammed Al-Sohaibani, Tawfeq Al-Howiriny, Mohammed Al-Yahya, and Syed Rafatullah
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) is a vegetable known to possess various therapeutic properties. We evaluated the anti-ulcerogenic property of ethanolic extract of dried calyces (EEHS) in different ulcer models in Wistar albino rats. The extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, orally has a significant effect in cold restraint stress, pylorus ligation, necrotizing agents (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH and 25% NaCl) and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer models. The extract showed an ability to significantly protect against gastric mucosal injury in all models used. Furthermore, EEHS has significantly decreased the basal gastric acid secretion, as well as significantly increased gastric wall mucus secretion (GWM) and non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) concentrations in gastric tissue. Whereas, the extract significantly reduced the ethanol-induced elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the rat stomach. These pharmacological and biochemical findings were further supported by the histological assessment of the stomach. The phytochemical constituents present in the H. sabdariffa calyces may contribute to its anti-ulcer activity through one or more mechanism(s), including the antisecretory and antioxidant nature of the extract.