The Sanandaj-Sirjan granitoids (SSG) in western Iran are composed mainly of granite, granodiorite and tonalite. Chemically the rocks are peraluminous and metaluminous, and show S-and I-type characteristics. The oval shape of the plutons, with large axes parallel to the Zagros main trend, along with deformational textures and structures, the existence of aluminous minerals such as andalusite, garnet and sillimanite as well as micaceous enclaves and geochemical features, all support generation of these rocks by partial melting of heterogeneous source materials in a continental collision setting, corresponding to the Zagros Orogen.
The Serow ophiolite in NW Iran, located at the Iran-Turkey border, is composed of mantle sequence peridotites, predominantly lherzolitic-harzburgite with subordinate amounts of lherzolite and dunite, and a crustal sequence made from gabbros, diabases, pillow lavas and deep marine carbonates and radiolarite sediments. The rocks appear as a tectonic mélange. This ophiolitic complex forms part of the ophiolites marking a branch of Neotethys oceanic crust in NW Iran. The chemistry of olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in the lherzolitic-harzburgite and clinopyroxene in the gabbros suggests a supra-subduction setting for the ophiolite. The Serow ophiolite is similar to other ophiolites in NW Iran such as the Piranshahr, Naghadeh and Khoy and NE Turkey ophiolites in terms of the rock units, tectonic setting and age. The Serow ophiolite links the Iranian ophiolites from Baft in the SE through the South Azerbaijan suture to the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture in the NW.
The Kaleybar nepheline syenite intrusion forms the largest silica undersaturated alkaline exposure in northwestern Iran. It consists of various rock types ranging from nepheline syenite to nepheline diorite that were emplaced during Eocene-Oligocene times, corresponding to the Alpine orogeny. The essential rock-forming minerals in nepheline syenite are plagioclase, K-feldspar, nepheline and amphibole. Clinopyroxene is the dominant phase in nepheline diorites. Titanian garnet occurs as an uncommon accessory phase forming reddish to deep brown individual grains.
Chemically it is intermediate between Ti-andradite (67 to 78 mole %) and grossular (21 to 33 mole %) with TiO2 contents ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 wt %. Stoichiometry and R-mode factor analysis on garnet chemistry show that the dominant exchange vectors are Si-Ti and Al-Fe substitutions in the tetrahedral and octahedral crystal sites, respectively. A magmatic origin of the investigated Ti-garnet is suggested on the basis of mineralogical criteria and chemical properties.
In this paper we reconstruct the tectonic evolution of Eastern Turkey, the Lesser Caucasus and NW-N Iran from the Late Carboniferous to Recent. NW Iran is one of the most complicated regions of the country, that with Turkey and the Lesser Caucasus is influenced by movements of the Arabian Plate. The Ahar Block, which is bounded by the Tabriz, Talysh, Araks, Myaneh and Allahyarlu-Hovai Faults, underwent compression and faulting. The block shows counterclockwise rotation through the confining faults and is being compressed by northward pressure from the Arabian Plate. The age and the nature of the Allahyarlu ophiolite, which is located at the northern boundary of the Ahar Block, are not known unequivocally. During the Late Carboniferous the Allahyarlu-Kaleybar-Northern Iran Basin opened, and Neotethys 1 was spreading. During the Permian the Allahyarlu-Kaleybar-Northern Iran Basin changed from a passive to a convergent environment and closed at Late Triassic to Early Jurassic time. In the Early Jurassic Neotethys 1 began to be subducted, causing the opening of the Sevan-Akera back-arc basin. Thereafter the Sevan-Akera Basin and the Neotethys 2 Basin were widening up to the Late Jurassic. The Black Sea-South Caspian Sea-Kopet Dagh Basin opened during the Jurassic. These basins were widening up to the Paleocene, but northward slider replacement of NW Iran caused the separation of the Caspian Sea Basin and the Black Sea Basin and the formation of the Kurdamir Uplift. In the Late Cretaceous the Central Iran basins were closed and the inner-Iran ophiolites were emplaced. Neotethys 1 closed in the Late Cretaceous and Neotethys 2 in the Late Miocene.
The Zagros Orogenic Belt includes the Fold and Thrust Belt, the High Zagros Belt, the Outer Zagros Ophiolitic Belt, the Sanandaj–Sirjan Metamorphic Belt, the Inner Zagros Ophiolitic Belt, and the Urumieh–Dokhtar Magmatic Belt. We divide the High Zagros evolutionary history into five stages: (1) triple junction formation, (2) continental lithosphere rifting, (3) generation, spreading, and maturation of the Neotethys Ocean, (4) subduction of the oceanic lithosphere, and (5) collision. The Neotethys triple junction, located at the southeastern corner of the Arabian Plate, formed during the Late Silurian–Early Carboniferous. Subsequently, this triple junction became a rift basin due to normal faulting and basalt eruption. The rifting stage occurred during the Late Carboniferous–Early Permian. Thereafter, extension of the basin continued, leading to spreading and maturation of the Neotethys oceanic basin during the Late Permian–Late Triassic. Probably at the end of the Late Triassic, closure of the Paleotethys Basin caused the initiation of two northeastward subductions: (1) oceanic–oceanic and (2) oceanic–continental. Oceanic–oceanic subduction continued until the Late Cretaceous and was terminated by the emplacement of the Outer Zagros Ophiolites, whereas oceanic–continental subduction continued until the Middle Miocene. Subduction in the southern Neotethys Basin between the Arabian and Central Iran Plates caused a tensional regime between Sanandaj–Sirjan and Central Iran, and the formation of a back-arc basin that by its closing led to the emplacement of the Inner Zagros Ophiolites during the Late Cretaceous.
Different rock types from the area northeast of Obudu, southeastern Nigeria were investigated in order to place constraints on their metamorphic conditions. Detailed petrographic studies indicate four main rock groups in the studied area, namely migmatitic gneiss, migmatitic schist, granite gneiss and a minor amount of amphibolite, metagabbro and dolerite. The chemistry of minerals in these rocks is used to estimate metamorphic pressure and temperature (P-T) using appropriate geothermometers and geobarometers. The estimated temperature for migmatitic gneiss of the area is ∼600–625 °C and 600–650 °C for migmatitic schist; the pressure is ∼ 8 kbar. For amphibolite the temperature is ∼600–700 °C and pressure is 8–12 kbar. The estimated pressures and temperatures for the northeast Obudu rocks correspond to upper amphibolite to lower granulite facies metamorphism. The metamorphism occurred due to continent-continent collision during the Pan-African orogeny, most likely during the D1 deformational phase of the area. The recorded high pressures possibly resulted from crustal thickening in the area. P-T conditions for Pan-African orogeny in northeast Obudu area are in good agreement with P-T estimations for the Pan-African event in adjacent areas.
Igneous biotite has been analyzed from three I-type calc-alkaline intrusives of the Shah Jahan Batholith in NW Iran, which host several Cu-Mo-Au prospects. The XMg (Mg/Mg+Fe) value of biotite is the most significant chemical factor and the relatively high value of XMg corresponds to relatively high oxidation states of magma (estimated fO2 is mostly 10−12.5 to 10−7.5 bars), which is in good agreement with their host intrusions' setting and related ore occurrences. Based on criteria of AlIV and AlVI values, all studied biotites are primary (AlVI = 0), and based on Altotal values (2.23–2.82 apfu) are in distinctive ranges of mineralized granitoid (Altotal=3.2 apfu).
The maximum F content of biotite from the Shah Jahan intrusions is moderately higher than those from some other calc-alkaline intrusions related to Cu-Mo porphyries in the world, and in contrast, Cl content is relatively lower. It is likely a result of primary magmatic vs. secondary hydrothermal origin, as well as the Mg-rich characteristics of the biotite in Shah Jahan. XMg values do not correlate with F and Cl contents of biotite, suggesting that biotite records changes in the F/OH and Cl/OH ratios in coexisting melt/fluids. It is consistent with F-compatible and Cl-incompatible behavior during fractional crystallization of wet calc-alkaline I-type granitoid magma generated at subduction related arc settings.
The fugacity ratios of (H2O/HF), (H2O/HCl) and (HF/HCl) magmatic solutions coexisting with biotite illustrate similar trends in the three intrusions, which can be due to parental magma sources and/or indicate occurrence of similar magmatic processes prior to or contemporaneous with exsolution of fluids from melt. The observed trends caused F-depletions and Cl-enrichments within developed magmatic-hydrothermal systems which are one of the essential characteristics of potential Cu-Mo-Au mineralized I-type granitoids.