The notion of knowledge-based economy premises that technological knowledge be created, accumulated and disseminated through
the interactive learning among principal actors in the national system. This paper analyzes, from a dynamic perspective, the
structure of inter-industrial technological knowledge. Both human-driven disembodied channel and capital-driven embodied channel
are investigated based on network analysis. The set of empirical data covers the Korean manufacturing sector during the 1980s.
Overall, density of network tends to be increasing over time, implying that knowledge network becomes expanded and intensified.
A number of distinctive features are identified between knowledge types and industrial categories. The findings in turn render
important policy implications that should be addressed when developing technology policy. Clearly, the policy framework needs
to be industry-specific and country-specific in accordance with the development stage and industrial structure of reference
Authors:Ramasamy Harikrishnan, Chellam Balasundaram, Young-Gun Moon, Man-Chul Kim, Ju-Sang Kim, Subramanian Dharaneedharan, and Moon-Soo Heo
) weighing 13 ± 2 g were administered intramuscularly a sublethal dose (1.8 × 10
to induce ulcerative dermatitis. On day 3 and day 6 after infection the fish were dip-treated (for 5 min/day) with a tri-herbal concoction of
Curcuma longa, Ocimum sanctum
(1%). The LD
value was recorded at a concentration of 2.3 × 10
between 30 and 36 days after infection. In the infected untreated group the cumulative mortality was higher, while in the early-treated group (day 3) there was no mortality. In the late-treated group (6th day) the mortality increased to 23.3% on day 36. In the infected group the size of ulcers progressively increased from 43.3% of the body length on day 18 to 86.7% on day 36. In the early-treated fish the size of ulcers was 23.3% of the body length on day 18; by day 36 after treatment the ulcer had completely healed. In contrast, there was only a moderate recovery in the late-treated group. From the results it can be concluded that early tri-herbal treatment ensures successful recovery from ulcerative dermatitis induced by
Authors:Lina Han, Soo-Jin Choi, Moon-Seok Park, Seon-Myong Lee, Yu-Jin Kim, Moon-Il Kim, Binyuan Liu, and Dae-Won Park
In this study, a series of imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) having carboxylic acid moieties were synthesized and used as new homogeneous catalysts to synthesize cyclic carbonates from CO2 and epoxides. Even in the absence of any co-catalyst and organic solvent, carboxylic-acid-functionalized ILs showed better catalytic activity in the coupling reaction of CO2 and styrene oxide for the production of styrene carbonate than did hydroxyl-functionalized ILs and conventional ILs without any functional moieties. A detailed investigation was carried out on a variety of factors that affected the reactivity, such as the alkyl chain length and the molecular composition of IL molecules including the halide ions. The effect of various reaction parameters such as reaction time, temperature, CO2 pressure and catalyst amount was also investigated in detail. The mechanism underlying the enhanced rate of the cycloaddition reaction in the presence of carboxylic-acid-functionalized ILs was proposed.
Authors:Jung-Nam Park, Jeong Kuk Shon, Mingshi Jin, Soo Sung Kong, Kiyoung Moon, Gwi Ok Park, Jin-Hyo Boo, and Ji Man Kim
Highly ordered mesoporous ruthenium dioxide (meso-RuO2) has been successfully synthesized by controlling the surface hydrophobicity of a mesoporous silica template (KIT-6) via a nano-replication method. The meso-RuO2 material, thus obtained, exhibits a well-defined mesostructure and high surface area (131 m2 g−1). The physicochemical properties of the meso-RuO2 material are characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption–desorption, temperature programmed techniques, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Pretreatment of the meso-RuO2 catalyst under different gas environments (O2, H2 and CO) strongly affects the catalytic activity towards CO oxidation. The meso-RuO2, pretreated by O2 flowing at 200 °C, exhibited excellent catalytic activity for CO oxidation, 100% CO conversion with long-term stability at room temperature, whereas the meso-RuO2 catalysts with pretreatment under other conditions are not very active at room temperature. It is found that the surface oxygen species generated on the meso-RuO2 during O2 pretreatment at 200 °C provide CO oxidation activity at room temperature.