Catharanthus roseus belongs to the family Apocynaceae, is an erector procumbent herb or undershrub containing latex. It possesses known antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal, antidiabetic, anticancer and antiviral activities. In the present study we carried out the screening of this plant for its antibacterial potential adopting the antibacterial assay. The different parts of C. roseus (leaf, stem, flower and root) were used and extracts were subjected to antibacterial assay. The extracts of C. roseus did not exhibit antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, leaf, stem and flower extracts were also ineffective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The leave extract did not exhibit activity against Corynebacterium diphtheriae, similarly, the crude extract of stem did not shown activity against Shigella boydii. The most effective was the root extract, which exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi and S. boydii with the zone of inhibitions measuring 24 mm and 22 mm, respectively. The flower extract also showed activity against C. diphtheriae.
The high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the combined estimation of sodium alginate and pectin in raft forming pharmaceuticals on C18 column ZORBAX ODS (1.5 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with UV detection at 378 nm. The assay condition comprised of phosphate buffer pH 7.4 and methanol 60:40% v/v at a flow rate of 1.25 mL/min. The separation of sodium alginate and pectin with good resolution and a retention time less than 8 min was attained. The method was linear over a range of 200–800 μg/mL of sodium alginate and pectin. The regression values obtained from linearity curve of sodium alginate and pectin were 0.9993 and 0.9991, respectively. The retention time of sodium alginate and pectin was 3.931 and 7.470 min, respectively. The percent recovery of sodium alginate and pectin ranged from 94.2–98.5% and 92.1–98.4% respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of sodium alginate were found to be 2.443 and 3.129 μg/mL and the LOD and LOQ of pectin were 3.126 and 3.785 μg/mL, respectively. The resolution of sodium alginate and pectin was found in the range of 1.03–1.89 and 1.10–1.91, respectively. This method has been successfully applied to analyze the concentrations of sodium alginate and pectin in raft forming drug delivery systems.
A simple, economic, rapid, reliable, and stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol (PCM) and caffeine (CF) in solid dosage form. The chromatographic separations were achieved with a Waters Symmetry® C18 column (5 μm, 4.6 × 150 mm), using a mixture of methanol and water (40:60, v/v) as a mobile phase, under isocratic elution mode with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, and ultraviolet (UV) detection was set at 264 nm. The oven temperature for the column was set and maintained at 35 °C. The method was validated according to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines, and it demonstrated excellent linearity, with a correlation coefficient of 1 and 0.9999 for PCM and CF, respectively, over the concentration ranges of 15–300 μg/mL (PCM) and 2.5–50 μg/mL (CF). The retention time (tR) was found to be 2.6 ± 0.001 and 3.5 ± 0.002 min for PCM and CF, respectively. Extensive stress degradation studies were conducted by subjecting the analytes to various stress conditions of acidic and alkaline hydrolysis as well as oxidative, photolytic, and heat degradations. The method was found to efficiently separate the analytes' peaks from that of the degradation products, without any variation in their retention times. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values of all recoveries for PCM and CF were less than 1.3%. The method was found to be suitable for routine analysis of PCM and CF in pharmaceutical dosage form.