Shape memory alloys are smart materials which have remarkable properties that promoted their use in a large variety of innovative applications. In this work, the shape memory effect and superelastic behavior of nickel-titanium helical spring was studied based on the finite element method. The three-dimensional constitutive model proposed by Auricchio has been used through the built-in library of ANSYS® Workbench 2020 R2 to simulate the superelastic effect and one-way shape memory effect which are exhibited by nickel-titanium alloy. Considering the first effect, the associated force-displacement curves were calculated as function of displacement amplitude. The influence of changing isothermal body temperature on the loading-unloading hysteretic response was studied. Convergence of the numerical model was assessed by comparison with experimental data taken from the literature. For the second effect, force-displacement curves that are associated to a complete one-way thermomechanical cycle were evaluated for different configurations of helical springs. Explicit correlations that can be applied for the purpose of helical spring's design were derived.
Bacterial endophytes from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere have been used to produce bioactive metabolites and to promote plant growth. However, little is known about the endophytes residing in seeds. This study aimed to isolate and identify seed-borne bacterial endophytes from rice and elucidate their potential for phytohormone production and growth enhancement. The isolated endophytes included Micrococcus yunnanensis RWL-2, Micrococcus luteus RWL-3, Enterobacter soli RWL-4, Leclercia adecarboxylata RWL-5, Pantoea dispersa RWL-6, and Staphylococcus epidermidis RWL-7, which were identified using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. These strains were analyzed for indoleacetic acid (IAA) production by using GC-MS and IAA was found in the range of 11.50 ± 0.77 μg ml−1 to 38.80 ± 1.35 μg ml−1. We also assessed the strains for plant growth promoting potential because these isolates were able to produce IAA in pure culture. Most of the growth attributes of rice plants (shoot and root length, fresh and dry biomass, and chlorophyll content) were significantly increased by bacterial endophytes compared to the controls. These results show that IAA producing bacterial endophytes can improve hostplant growth traits and can be used as bio-fertilizers.