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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Muhammad Nadeem Khan, Muhstaq Ahmed, Muhammad Wasim Khan, and Rahmat Ali Khan

Traditional medicines are composed of herbal formulations and their active ingredients and constituents which play a crucial role in the treatment of various human ailments. Astragalus eremophilus and Melilotus indicus (L.) All. (syn. Melilotus parviflora Desf.) are used traditionally as antiperspirant, tonic, diuretic, laxative and narcotic agents. The current study was designed to investigate the Astragalus eremophilus and Melilotus indicus (L.) All. (syn. Melilotus parviflora Desf.) methanol extracts for their antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Fine powder of A. eremophilus and M. parviflora was extracted with 70% methanol to get crude methanol extract. Extract was characterized for antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Antioxidant activity of various concentrations (3 mg/ml, 1.5 mg/ ml, 0.75 mg/ml, and 0.38 mg/ml) of both plant extracts was analyzed using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. Salmonella typhemorium, Klebsiella pneumoniae (gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis (gram-positive) bacterial strains were used for assessment of antibacterial activities. Antifungal activities of 7.5 mg/ml, 5.0 mg/ml, 2.5 mg/ml (A. eremophilus and M. parviflora) were conducted using Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicons. At high concentration (3 mg/ml), all the tested fractions of A. eremophilus and M. parviflora methanol extracts showed potent antioxidant activities, ranging between 83.8 and 63.33%. Antibacterial activities revealed that A. eremophilus showed a maximum zone of inhibition (8.1 ± 0.1) on Salmonella typhenorium followed by Enterococcus faecalis (7.2 ± 0.1), Klebsellesa pneumonia (6.1 ± 0.6), and Staphylococcus aureus (5.1 ± 0.4), and at highest concentration (7.5 mg/ml), however, maximum zone of inhibition of Melilotus parviflora was at 7.5 mg/ml followed by 5.0 mg/ml and 2.5 mg/ml against Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhemorium and Enterococcus faecalis. Antifungal assessment of both plant extracts showed that the higher concentration (7.5 mg/ml) has significant inhibitory effect as compared to control. The results can lead to the conclusion that A. eremophilus and M. parviflora methanol extracts are indeed sources of potential therapeutic compounds against antibacterial, antifungal and free radical associated disorders.

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