This study reports a novel strategy for investigating the key factors responsible for the protective effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) against renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, which remains the leading cause of the acute kidney injury that increase the morbidity and mortality in patients with renal impairment.
The renal blood flow of the right kidneys in kidney remote ischemic preconditioning (KRIPC) group was occluded for 20 min. After 48 h, the renal blood flow of the left kidneys of both KRIPC and IPC groups was occluded for 30 min, and mice were dissected after 7 days of the last surgery. Blood samples were analyzed by an animal blood counter. The levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide (NO), and high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) were estimated in the plasma of mice. Kidney slices were stained with 2% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) to estimate the renal infarction.
Unlike KRIPC group, data from IPC group revealed a massive reduction in neutrophils count, a significant increase in creatinine, urea nitrogen, and HDLs levels, and an increase in the renal infarction compared with control group.
This is the first study demonstrating KRIPC as a novel and applicable model with the goal of defining the accurate protective mechanisms underlying RIPC against IR injury.
There is a lack of knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms of the antidiabetic activity of Moringa oleifera. This study investigates the antidiabetic effect of M. oleifera and its impact on the immune tolerance.
Alloxan-induced diabetes model for mice was used. A dose of 100 mg/kg of Moringa extract was orally administered to diabetic treated mice. Glucose and insulin levels were evaluated to calculate insulin resistance. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were measured. The relative percentage of CD44, CD69, and IFN-γ was investigated by flow cytometry.
In diabetic mice, insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was increased 4.5-fold than in the control group, and HOMA-IR was decreased 1.3-fold in the Moringa treatment group. The level of TAC was declined 1.94-fold in diabetic mice, and increased 1.67-fold in diabetic treated group. In diabetic mice, creatinine and BUN levels were significantly reduced 1.42- and 1.2-fold, respectively, in Moringa treatment mice. The relative percentage of CD44 was not changed in diabetic mice, but the relative percentage of CD69 was found to be increased. INF-γ was decreased 2.4-fold in diabetic mice and elevated in treated groups.
Moringa may ameliorate insulin resistance, increase TAC, and improve immune tolerance.