Authors:Tolga Guvenc, Murat Yarim, Mustafa Gulbahar, and Yonca Kabak
The cerebella of 12 dogs infected with canine distemper virus (CDV) and those of three normal dogs were examined. The avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex technique was used to detect αB-crystallin (αB-c) immunoreactivity and immunolocalisation of the CDV antigen. CDV antigens, immunopositive astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and granular neurons were seen in both the white and grey matter of the infected dogs. In the controls, αB-c immunopositive glial cells were seen in the white matter and around the Purkinje cells. In dogs with distemper, αB-c immunoreactivity was not observed in some of the glial cells around the Purkinje cells. A significant negative correlation of P < 0.01 level was found between areas of severe demyelination and the number of αB-c immunopositive cells in dogs infected with CDV. Such correlation was not observed between mild and moderate demyelinating areas and αB-c immunostaining. The αB-crystallin/total number of cells ratio was found to be significant in severely affected demyelinating areas (P < 0.05). These data indicate that there was a relationship between the degrees of CDV associated with demyelination and the level of αB-c expression in the glial cells.
Authors:Nilgün Gültiken, Murat Yarim, Gül Fatma Yarim, Mahmut Sözmen, Elvan Anadol, and Murat Findik
The objective of this study was to investigate the plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) as well as its expression in the uterus and ovary of healthy dogs and those with cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH)–pyometra complex. Group 1 (n = 10) included bitches with open cervix pyometra, while Group 2 (n = 7) consisted of clinically healthy bitches in dioestrus. The number of IGF-2 immunopositive interstitial cells was significantly higher in Group 1, whereas in Group 2 there were only two cases in which a few cells were IGF-2 immunopositive. IGF-2 immunopositivity was observed in the endometrial glandular epithelium in both groups. Additionally, interstitial fibroblasts and macrophages in the endometrium were also positive in Group 1. The concentration of plasma IGF-2 was higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P < 0.05). The concentration was positively correlated with IGF-2 expression in the endometrial glands (r = 0.926; P < 0.001) in Group 1. However, a negative correlation was present between plasma IGF-2 concentration and IGF-2 expression in the interstitial endocrine cells of the ovary in Group 1 (r = −0.652; P < 0.05). The results suggest that IGF-2 plays an important role during the inflammatory process occurring in bitches with CEH–pyometra complex as well as in the endometrium of healthy bitches in dioestrus.
Authors:Nalan Kabakci, Murat Yarim, Siyami Karahan, Tolga Guvenc, Burahan Bekir Yagci, and I. Safa Gurcan
The cerebella of 21 dogs with canine distemper virus (CDV) infection and four normal dogs were examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically. Cerebella of CDV-infected dogs showed nonsuppurative demyelinating encephalomyelitis, classified as acute, subacute or chronic. Immunolocalisation of CDV antigen also confirmed the infection. Tissues were examined for co-localisation of the CDV antigen with either an astrocyte-specific marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), or an oligodendrocyte-specific marker, galactocerebroside (GalC). Immunoreactive cells were counted in demyelinating areas of the white matter. The number of astrocytes (GFAP positive) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in CDV-infected dogs compared to controls. In contrast, the number of oligodendrocytes (GalC positive) was significantly (p < 0.001) lower in CDV-infected dogs and was much lower in chronic cases (p < 0.05). Approximately 41% of astrocytes and 17% of oligodendrocytes were immunoreactive for CDV. The ratio of CDV-infected oligodendrocytes and astrocytes remained almost constant during the progression of the disease (P ≯ 0.05). In conclusion, CDV infects both astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The gradual loss of oligodendrocytes is most likely responsible for the progressive demyelination in CDV infection. Astrocytosis in CDV infection should be further investigated if it occurs to stimulate oligodendrocytes for myelin production to compensate for the loss or to induce oligodendrocyte degeneration.
Authors:Yonca B. Kabak, Mahmut Sozmen, Alparslan K. Devrim, Mert Sudagidan, Funda Yildirim, Tolga Guvenc, Murat Yarim, Yavuz M. Gulbahar, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Efe Karaca, and Sinem Inal
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the skin in cats. Tumour angiogenesis is the pivotal event for tumour progression and metastasis. We assessed protein and gene expression of angiogenic growth factors including bFGF, VEGF-C, TGF-β, PDGF-A, PDGF-C and PDGFR-α that possibly contribute to the angiogenic phenotype of feline SCC (FSCC) and could, therefore, be a good target in the treatment of SCC. In the present study, a total of 27 FSCC cases were investigated. Tumour cases were histopathologically classified as well differentiated (10/27), moderately differentiated (5/27), and poorly differentiated (12/27). The expression levels of the growth factors were detected using immunohistochemistry and assessed semi-quantitatively. Growth factor expression levels were evaluated at different locations: in the oral region, in areas exposed to solar UV radiation including the ears, eyelids and nasal planum, and other miscellaneous locations. Our findings have revealed that FSCC arising from different anatomical sites of the body and showing differences in aggressiveness, metastasis, and prognosis may be angiogenesis dependent, and angiogenic key regulators could play a role in the development of FSCC.