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- Author or Editor: Nóra Vass x
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Artificial insemination (AI) can undoubtedly be regarded as the oldest and most widely used assisted reproductive technique/technology (ART) applied in livestock production and it is one of the most important ARTs. The three cornerstones of its application are that it is simple, economical and successful. Artificial insemination offers many well-known benefits for producers. Fresh, fresh + diluted + chilled and frozen semen can be used for AI in small ruminants. To ensure its successful use, the AI technique must be selected on the basis of the type of semen planned to be used. This review paper gives a detailed overview of semen processing and its effects on semen quality, as well as of the AI techniques applied in small ruminants and their success rates.
By decreasing the volume of the cryoprotective solution it is possible to increase dramatically the freezing speed and — at the same time — reduce the toxicity and osmotic side effects of cryoprotectants (CPA). The objective of our study was to vitrify Day-3 cleavage stage mouse embryos (n = 229) with the cryoloop technology using a new composition of vitrification media. Embryos were exposed to a 2-step loading of CPA, ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG), before being placed on the surface of a thin filmy layer formed from the vitrification solution in a small nylon loop, then they were rapidly submerged into liquid nitrogen. After warming, the CPA was diluted out from the embryos by a 3-step procedure. Survival of embryos was based on morphological appearance after thawing and continued development to expanded blastocysts upon subsequent 48-hour culture. Embryos of the two control groups were either treated likewise except that they were not vitrified, or cultured in vitro without any treatment. Our data show that a high percentage of embryos survived (92.7%) vitrification in the mixture of EG and PG combined with cryoloop carrier and developed normally (89.1%) in vitro after thawing. To our knowledge this is the first report of the successful vitrification of cleavage stage mouse embryos using VitroLoop vitrification procedure.