Authors:M. Conceição, A. Melo, N. Narain, I. Santos, and A. Souza
The thermogravimetric procedures applied to quality control of foods attain the global analysis of quality of the product,
through the determination of quality parameters and the thermal stability of products. The kinetic parameters such as order
of reaction, apparent activation energy, pre-exponential factors and the thermal decomposition rate constant were determined
for the samples of corn and its derivatives by applying isothermal thermogravimetry, utilizing the Arrhenius law. This method
presented excellent results as verified with the coherence and data adjustment. The rate constant values showed the expected
performance from the chemical point of view.
Authors:N. Santos, J. Santos, F. Sinfrônio, T. Bicudo, I. Santos, N. Antoniosi Filho, V. Fernandes, and A. Souza
The babassu (Orbignya Phalerata Mart.) biodiesel has lauric esters as main constituents, resulting in high oxidative stability and low cloud and freezing
points. In order to reduce these side effects, the saturated ethyl esters content was reduced by means of winterization process.
The TMDSC and PDSC techniques were used to verify the thermal and oxidative stabilities of the ethyl babassu biodiesel. During
the heating stage, the winterized solid phase of ethyl esters presented an endothermic transition associated to the solidification
process. This behavior was not observed for the liquid winterized FAEE, confirming the efficiency of the winterization process.
Authors:G. A. A. Teixeira, A. S. Maia, I. M. G. Santos, A. L. Souza, A. G. Souza, and N. Queiroz
Cloud point (CP), cold filter plugging point (CFPP), and pour point (PP) of biodiesel samples obtained from blends containing different amounts of beef tallow, babassu oil, and soybean oil were investigated by the corresponding conventional techniques and by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC). The CP and CFPP values correlate well with the crystallization temperature (Tonset) obtained from the TMDSC curves, being the highest for the biodiesel sample containing the highest amount of methyl stearate. A correspondence between PP and the peak temperature was also noticed, pointing out that pouring ceases after the crystallization of the heavier fatty acid ester. Among the samples of biodiesel, Bio-3 (highest amount of babassu oil) and Bio-4 (highest amount of soybean oil) showed better cold-flow properties, or in other words, lower values of CP, CFPP, and PP. Independently of the composition, the cold-flow properties of all biodiesel samples meet the requirements from the Brazilian National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Biofuels (ANP).
Authors:M. C. D. Silva, L. M. da Silva, N. A. Santos, M. M. Conceição, A. G. Souza, and A. O. dos Santos
Nowadays the growing fuel deficit requires the development of alternative fuel sources. Biodiesel is a good substitute to the conventional diesel because it is quite similar to the fossil fuel in its main characteristics. However, there are some obstacles, as the properties of cold-flow, to the development of a more useful alternative fuel. In this work we use the X-ray diffraction and differential calorimetry scanning to study low temperature properties of ethylic Babassu biodiesel. Our results show that the nucleation of crystals starts below −8 °C and the crystallization temperature does not change significantly when the sample was submitted to a winterization process. The higher concentrations of ethyl esters from saturated fat acid are probably responsible for this characteristic. The X-ray diffraction, combined with DSC measurements, was efficiently employed in the characterization of cold-flow biodiesel properties, showing to be very helpful techniques.
Authors:N. A. Santos, R. Rosenhaim, M. B. Dantas, T. C. Bicudo, E. H. S. Cavalcanti, A. K. Barro, I. M. G. Santos, and A. G. Souza
Biodiesel is an increasingly attractive alternative to diesel fuel. The main component of Babassu biodiesel is lauric acid (C12:0), which is a saturated fatty acid with a high melting point. Controlling flow properties, such as viscosity and the cold filter plugging point, is critical because viscosity affects atomization, and crystal formation resulting from decreases in temperature can negatively affect engine starting and performance. To evaluate its flow characteristics more fully, the rheological properties of babassu biodiesel were analyzed, taking into account variations in temperature. The crystallization temperature was determined by modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MT-DSC). The curve of biodiesel viscosity as a function of the biodiesel refrigeration temperature contained an inflection point (corresponding to a steep increase in viscosity) that was coincident with both the transition from a Newtonian-type flow to a pseudoplastic-type flow and the crystallization temperature obtained by MT-DSC, indicating that the appearance of crystals in the biodiesel increased its viscosity. The rheological properties of fatty acid methyl and ethyl mixtures (FAME and FAEE) with metropolitan diesel were also evaluated; a higher FAME percentage reduced viscosity in blends up to B100.
Authors:A. S. Fonseca, J. N. G. Frydman, R. Santos, and M. Bernardo-Filho
Acetaminophen (AAP), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and dipyrone (DIP) are antipyretic and analgesics drugs that have wide use in health sciences. Some drugs can modify the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m (99mTc). This work has evaluated the effect of AAP, ASA and DIP on the labeling of the blood elements with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with different concentrations of the drugs before the 99mTc-labeled process. Plasma (P), blood cells (BC), insoluble (IF-P, IF-BC) and soluble (SF-P, SF-BC) fractions were separated and percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) in each fraction was determined. Data have shown that the antipyretic drugs used in this study did not significantly modify the fixation of 99mTc on the blood elements when the experiments were carried out with the doses usually used in human beings. Although the experiments were carried out with rats, it is possible to suggest that AAP, ASA or DIP should not interfere with the procedures in nuclear medicine involving the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc
Authors:M. L. S. De Melo, N. A. Santos, R. Rosenhaim, A. G. Souza, and P. F. Athayde Filho
Biodiesel has the advantage of being renewable and clean and for these reasons has been studied recently both academically and in industry. Research in this area is focused on developing new synthetic routes to obtain a purer product or to find new alternative sources of food to replace conventional oils. Papaya biodiesel is obtained from oily residues with a fatty acid composition similar to olive oil. It is generally discarded by the ton, considering that Brazil is the world’s largest producer of papaya with an annual output of 1,811 million tons, productivity of 52 t/hectare and domestic consumption at 86.5%. This study was designed by means of thermal analysis (TG, DSC, P-DSC, and MT-DSC), to verify the possibility of achieving high quality biodiesel, with oxidative stability and flow properties previously indicated by composition analysis of its fatty esters, physical–chemical properties (including oxidative stability) using classical methodology, recommended by ASTM D 6756.
Authors:A. Vasconcelos, M. Dantas, M. Filho, R. Rosenhaim, E. Cavalcanti, N. Antoniosi Filho, F. Sinfrônio, I. Santos, and A. Souza
The influence of drying processes in the biodiesel oxidation was investigated by means of the oxidative induction time obtained
from differential scanning calorimetry data. For this purpose, corn biodiesel was dried by different methods including: chemical
(anhydrous sodium sulfate) and thermal (induction heating, heating under vacuum and with microwave irradiation). The drying
efficiency was evaluated by monitoring IR absorption in the 3,500–3,200 cm−1 range and by the AOCS Bc 2-49 method. In general, the oxidative induction times increased inversely to the heating degree,
except that of microwave irradiation, which was selective to water evaporation and caused low impact over the unsaturation
of biodiesel. The DSC technique was shown to be a powerful tool to evaluate with high level of differentiation the influence
of the drying process on the oxidative stability of biodiesel.
Authors:G. A. A. Teixeira, A. S. Maia, R. Rosenhaim, I. M. G. Santos, A. L. Souza, A. G. Souza, and N. Queiroz
Biodiesel can be obtained from various fatty acid sources. Each raw material has a different chemical composition that leads to different properties. Owing to these properties, the mixture of different proportions of raw materials can lead to biodiesels with best features in relation to physicochemical parameters such as viscosity, oxidative stability and flow properties, generating a fuel whose characteristics meet the requirements of the current legislation of the Brazilian National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP). The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties of biodiesel samples produced from mixtures of beef tallow, babassu oil, and soybean oil. The thermo-oxidative stability was evaluated using thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that all samples were in accordance to the ANP specifications. The biodiesel obtained from a mixture containing 50% of babassu oil had lower values of pour point, cold filter plugging point, and freezing point. This biodiesel also showed a higher thermo-oxidative stability in synthetic air and in oxygen atmospheres.