The freezable water contents of samples obtained from previously chilled semimembranous muscle of middle-aged beef carcasses after a 24 h cooling period a room at in 5±1‡C were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at −5, −10, −15, −20, −30, −40, −50 and −65‡C. This was accomplished by freezing the samples at the above-mentioned temperatures, followed by thawing to 35‡C, and measuring the melting peaks of freezable water. The areas of these peaks were determined by using the peak integration method programs through a computer linked to the DSC, and they were then used to determine the latent heat of melting (δHm) in kJ kg−1 at each freezing temperature. The resultant latent heat of melting per sample was divided by the latent heat for pure water to determine the amount of freezable water present in these samples. This amount of freezable water was divided by the total water content of the meat sample to determine the percentage of freezable water in the sample. The percentage of freezable water was subtracted from 100 to determine the percentage of bound water present in the sample.
The differences in bound water content of beef semimembranous muscle samples obtained from previously chilled (24 h at +4°C)
middle-aged beef carcasses were determined by the use of DSC. Initially, samples obtained from fresh, unprocessed meat were
frozen at −40, −50 or −65°C to determine their melting peaks for freezable water (free water) content with the use of DSC.
The samples were then subjected to an environment with an ambient temperature of −30, −35, −40 or −45°C, with no air circulation,
or with an air circulation speed of 2 m s−1, until a thermal core temperature of −18°C was attained; this was followed by thawing the samples until a thermal core temperature
of 0°C was reached. This process was followed by subjecting the samples to the ambient temperatures mentioned above, to accomplish
complete freezing and thawing of the samples, with DSC, and thereby determination of the freezable water contents, which were
then used to determine the peaks of melting. The calculated peak areas were divided by the latent heat of melting for pure
water, to determine the freezable water contents of the samples. The percentage freezable water content of each sample was
determined by dividing its freezable water content by its total water content; and the bound water content of each sample
was determined by subtracting the percentage free water content from the total. In view of the fact that the free water content
of a sample is completely in the frozen phase at temperatures of −40°C and below, the calculations of free and bound water
contents of the samples were based on the averages of values obtained at three different temperatures.