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Abstract

Background

Decision-making and risk-taking behavior undergo developmental changes during adolescence. Disadvantageous decision-making and increased risk-taking may lead to problematic behaviors such as substance use and abuse, pathological gambling and excessive internet use.

Methods

Based on MEDLINE searches, this article reviews the literature on decision-making and risk-taking and their relationships to addiction vulnerability in youth.

Results

Decision-making and risk-taking behaviors involve brain areas that undergo developmental changes during puberty and young adulthood. Individual differences and peer pressure also relate importantly to decision-making and risk-taking.

Conclusions

Brain-based changes in emotional, motivational and cognitive processing may underlie risk-taking and decision-making propensities in adolescence, making this period a time of heightened vulnerability for engagement in addictive behaviors.

Open access

This study investigated lipid peroxidation (LPO) changes during intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion with and without deferoxamine or L-arginine treatment. White Wistar rats were allotted into four groups as follows: sham-operated (Group SOP), ischaemia-reperfusion only (Group I/R), I/R with deferoxamine (Group D) or L-arginine (Group A) treatment. Concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), overall concentration of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-alkenals (LPO586), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) of the jejunal homogenates were determined. The same analytes except LPO586 were assayed in RBC haemolysates. Measurements of ferric reducing ability (FRAP), total antioxidant status (TAS) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations of plasma samples were also completed. The only significant change observed in the SOP group was an increased SOD activity after the ischaemic period. In the I/R group significant increase of intestinal LPO586 concentration was observed during hypoxia that was followed by similar changes in intestinal and RBC TBARS and plasma FRAP values upon reperfusion. In Group D the intestinal TBARS and LPO586 concentrations were significantly lower while FRAP and NO concentrations were significantly higher compared to the I/R group. At the same time RBC TBARS concentration and GPX activity significantly decreased within Group D. In Group A the intestinal LPO586 concentration was significantly lower than in the I/R group whilst RBC TBARS concentration showed a similar pattern. Plasma FRAP and NO concentration showed similar changes to those seen in Group D. It is concluded that I/R increased the LPO in the intestinal tissue and altered some parameters of plasma and RBCs, too. Deferoxamine treatment prevented these effects, while the usefulness of L-arginine remained doubtful.

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Age-related changes of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) of liver and brain, as well as plasma antioxidant capacity of broiler chicken cockerels were investigated. Tissue LPO was characterised by the spectrophotometric assessment of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Plasma antioxidant power was evaluated by the measurement of total antioxidant status (TAS). Newly hatched broiler chicks had similar TAS value (1.19 mmol/l) as newborns of mammalian species. Significant changes (p < 0.05) were observed in the time course of all parameters. Tissue TBARS concentration was higher in the brain than in the liver at hatching, while the latter organ was found to have more effective antioxidant defence during embryonic life. The concentration of TBARS increased up to the 10th day in the liver but only up to the 21st day in the brain, and the former was accompanied by an approximately 50% decrease of plasma antioxidant capacity. This suggests that the liver plays an important role in forming the antioxidant defence mechanisms of the blood plasma in broiler chicks.

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Authors: Tibor Gaál, L. Wágner, F. Husvéth, H. A. Manilla, P. Vajdovich, N. Balogh, I. Lóth and Katalin Németh S.

The influence of fish oil (highly unsaturated) and beef tallow (highly saturated) with vitamin E (100 IU/kg) supplementation on the antioxidant status of broiler chicken cockerels was investigated. Chicks were fed a control diet with no added fat, 40 g/kg each of fish oil and beef tallow diets, respectively, from 11 to 42 days of age. Tocopherol concentration and the rate of lipid peroxidation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in liver, fatty acid composition of the liver lipids, blood serum total antioxidant status (TAS), and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were determined. Vitamin E supplementation of the diet increased liver ?-tocopherol content in chicks regardless of the type of dietary fat. Fish oil diet resulted in higher liver TBARS value while beef tallow diet showed lower values compared to the control diet. Vitamin E supplementation reduced liver TBARS as well as serum GSH, and raised serum TAS for all diets. Serum GSH was the same for vitamin E supplemented diets regardless of the fat supplement. Fish oil diets resulted in a significant increase in hepatic lipid n-3 PUFA content. A significant positive correlation was found between liver TBARS and n-3 PUFA content. No relationships were established, however, between liver TBARS and n-6 PUFA or saturated fatty acids. The results suggest that feeding oils rich in n-3 PUFA increases tissue concentration of these fatty acids, consequently increasing tissue lipid peroxidation and reducing the antioxidative status of broiler chickens. Supplementing high levels of vitamin E with such oils may increase tissue oxidative stability. Serum TAS or GSH may be used as a measure of antioxidative status in chickens.

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Authors: O. Erdősi, K. Szakmár, O. Reichart, Zs. Szili, N. László, Z. Balogh, P. Székely Körmöczy and P. Laczay

The classical ISO (2002) standard as reference method and the combination of redox potential measurement with real-time PCR technique were applied to detect Salmonella in milk, egg, broiler meat, and artificially contaminated egg samples. Food samples of 25 g were homogenized in 225 ml of RVS broth to prepare the basic suspension of the comparative tests. In the combined method the redox potential measurement technique serves as the selective enrichment system of the real-time PCR equipment. The reliable screening of Salmonella-free, negative samples by the redox potential measurement technique needed only 24 h. These negative samples determined by the PCR and the classical standard method in all cases proved to be negative as well. In case of positive redox result the Salmonella from the enriched suspension of the redox test-cell was identified by real-time PCR in 3 hours, instead of the conventional biochemical identification. Comparing our protocol to the ISO (2002) standard method, the total detection time of Salmonella presence/absence was less than 24 h contrary to the 114 h of the conventional method.

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Authors: E. McCloskey, A. Dey, R. Parr, N. Aras, A. Balogh, J. Bostock, A. Borell, S. Krishnan, G. Lobo, L. Qin, Y. Zhang, S. Cvijetic, V. Zaichick, M. Lim-Abraham, K. Bose, S. Wynchank and G. Iyengar
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Authors: R. Kiss, J. Sonkoly, P. Török, B. Tóthmérész, B. Deák, K. Tóth, K. Lukács, L. Godó, A. Kelemen, T. Miglécz, Sz. Radócz, E. Tóth, N. Balogh and O. Valkó

Seeds ensure the survival and dispersal of the majority of vascular plant species. Seeds require species-specific germination conditions and display very different germination capacities using different germination methods. Despite the importance of plant generative reproduction, little is known about the germination capacity of the seeds of the Pannonian flora, particularly under field conditions. Our aim was to reduce this knowledge gap by providing original data on the germination capacity of 75 herbaceous species. We reported the germination capacity of 8 species for the first time. We also highlighted the year-to-year differences in the germination capacity of 11 species which could be highly variable between years. The data regarding the germination capacity of target species, as well as weeds and invasive species, can be informative for nature conservation and restoration projects. Our findings support the composition of proper seed mixtures for ecological restoration and also highlight the importance of testing seed germination capacity before sowing.

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