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The rheological properties of seven winter wheat cultivars from two harvest years were studied. Rheological testing included two empirical rheological methods, alveograph and extensograph. Principal component analysis on the studied rheological parameters showed that the alveograph and extensograph parameters are influenced by entirely different factors. The first component was responsible solely for the extensograph parameters, primarily for the resistance properties of dough samples. The second component affected the extensograph extensibility (E) and alveograph tenacity (P) parameters as well, in spite of the fact that these parameters refer to different properties of dough. The third component explained only alveograph parameters, such as P, L and G values. The Pearson’s correlation coefficients showed that the extensograph area parameter primarily depends on the maximum resistance to extension of dough (r=0.91). The extensibility and resistance at a constant extension of 5 cm properties did not show such strong relationship with the area parameter (r=0.56 and 0.65, respectively). The relationship between the extensograph maximum resistance and extensibility parameters was positive (r=0.20), while the correlation coefficient between alveograph P and L value was negative (r=0.34).

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Abstract

The recycling of greywater for non-potable water applications, such as toilet flushing or irrigation, is a potential solution to reduce potable water consumption. To estimate the quality of raw greywater samples, we measured several physical, chemical and biological parameters. We used Hygiene Monitor test kits to determine microbiological presence in the samples. The greywater samples showed a high variability for all the measured parameters. In general, we found that greywater sources had lightly alkaline character with a considerable inorganic and organic content. About half of the analyzed samples can be characterized as highly contaminated water source with organic substance. The average BOD5 and DOC values of greywater samples were 429 ± 410 mg l−1 and 341 ± 348 mg l−1. The samples showed high similarity concerning the total plate counts parameter (range from 5 to 6 log10 cfu ml−1). Among the three greywater sources, the samples from dish sources showed the lowest coliform content (3.9 log10 cfu ml−1) and the bath samples were contaminated with coliforms to the highest degree (4.9 log10 cfu ml−1). The results of E. coli contamination tests proved that all greywater sources can be contaminated with pathogen bacteria, consequently the treatment before reuse of greywater is indispensable.

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Aircraft manufacturing industry has developed dynamically in the last decades. Reinforced polymers have become the most dominant raw materials, while the recycling rate of the generated industrial waste has also increased. The greatest aircraft manufacturers have integrated environmental protection in their production process, while defining clear environmental goals for the future. In this study, we have analyzed the environmental considerations of the aircraft manufacturing industry through the examples of Boeing and Airbus companies. Our goal was to define the possible environmental impacts of the aircraft industry, focusing on raw material usage and waste recycling.

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Abstract

Several small and big water streams cut across Hungary; the protection of these water resources is in our common interest. To perform this protection, it is necessary to carry out extensive condition surveys of these surface waters. Unfortunately, our surface water streams are not properly investigated; it is true especially for the small ones. That is why we started to study the water quality of Nagy Brook, which is loaded by many point sources of pollution. During our work we have done measurements on spot and in laboratory, as well. In this paper we are presenting only those results which were measured on the spots along the Nagy Brook. Our results demonstrate how large the effect of inflowing treated wastewater is on the quality of a seasonal water stream and how the water level affects the studied parameters and what kind of the chemical and ecological water conditions can be developed under these circumstances.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
Zs. Hajdu
,
L. Lorántfy
,
N. Jedlinszki
,
K. Boros
,
J. Hohmann
, and
D. Csupor

The radish-like hypocotyls of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp., Brassicaceae) are widely consumed as common vegetable in the Andean highlands. It is considered as healthy food, rich in carbohydrates and protein, a herbal medicine with a general invigorating reputation and fertility and sexual performance enhancer. The latter is the most popular contemporary application of the plant in Europe. The number and variety of industrial products on the market is increasing. Here we report the development of a simple and reliable analytical protocol for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of maca content of preparations and for the detection of synthetic phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Fourteen products were analysed by the method based on TLC and HPLC-DAD analysis developed by us. Our experiments revealed that beside good-quality products, the majority of the multicomponent preparations did not contain the declared herbal component or the quantity of the measured macamide was very low. Furthermore, one preparation is adulterated with a synthetic phosphodiesterase inhibitor. The presented method is suitable for quality control of L. meyenii products.

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Using yeast two-hybrid screens we determined that Drosophila (Dm)p53 interacts with proteins involved in sumoylation (UBA2, UBC9 and PIAS) through different regions of its C-terminal domain. A K302R point mutation within a single canonical sumoylation site of Dmp53 did not abolish the observed interactions. These observations prompted us to analyze whether Dmp53 sumoylation at this site has any functional role in vivo. Genetic assays showed that deleting one copy of genes involved in sumoylation (lwr, Su(var)2–10 or smt3 heterozygosity) enhanced slightly the mutator phenotype of Dmp53. We compared the in vivo effects of wild type and K302R Dmp53 overproduced from transgenes and determined that similar levels of expression of the mutant and wild type proteins resulted in similar phenotype, and the two proteins showed similar cellular localization. The half life and the trans-activator activity of K302R mutant and wild type Dmp53 were also comparable. Lastly, by analyzing wild type and K302R Dmp53 expressed at different levels in animals and in S2 cells we detected no differences between the mobility of the mutant and wild-type protein. From these data we conclude that under normal developmental conditions the loss of SUMO modification at K302 does not affect Dmp53 function significantly.

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