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  • Author or Editor: N. Ionescu x
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Abstract  

Activation energies of ignition for the thermokinetic oscillations obtained during the heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of ethanol on Pd/Al2O3 in a dynamic calorimeter were obtained using the minimum values of the temperature oscillations. These activation energies of ignition are greater than the activation energies of the corresponding oscillations. The obtained results are discussed by assuming a PdOx redox cycle.

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Abstract  

The surface properties of supported gallium oxide catalysts prepared by impregnation of various supports (γ-Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2) were investigated by adsorption microcalorimetry, using ammonia and water as probe molecules. In the case of acidic supports (γ-Al2O3, ZrO2, TiO2), the acidic character of supported gallium catalysts always decreased in comparison with gallium-free supports; on very weakly acidic SiO2, new acidic centers were created when depositing Ga2O3. The addition of gallium oxide decreased the hydrophilic properties of alumina, titania and zirconia, but increased the amount of water adsorbed on silica. The catalytic performances in the selective catalytic reduction of NO by C2H4 in excess oxygenwere in the order Ga/Al2O3>Ga/TiO2>Ga/ZrO2>>Ga/SiO2. This order is more related to the quality of the dispersion of Ga2O3 on the support than to the global acidity of the solids.

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Abstract  

Samples with various amounts of tin oxide were prepared by impregnating γ-Al2O3, TiO2(anatase), SiO2, ZrO2 and MgO with tin tetrachloride or tributyltin acetate solutions. After drying and calcination, the samples were characterized by chemical analysis, XRD and BET measurements. Ammonia adsorption microcalorimetry was used in order to determine the number, strength and strength distribution of surface acid sites. The influence of the adsorption temperature, evacuation temperature, amount of SnO2 deposited and of the nature of the support on the adsorption properties were studied.

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Abstract

The in situ electrical properties and the catalytic activity of copper ferrite obtained by co-precipitation and thermal decomposition of polynuclear coordination compounds were studied in the propane oxidation reaction. The sample prepared by complexation had a better catalytic activity. Based on the conductivity data and the relative phase distribution in fresh and used compounds, the results are discussed in terms of the redox-type mechanism.

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Abstract

The electrical conductivity and the catalytic activity of SnO2 loaded TiO2 (anatase) particles were investigated in operando conditions. SnO2 depositions over commercial TiO2 samples (Sigma Aldrich and Rhone Poulenc) were obtained by the impregnation method. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM/EDX and BET–N2 adsorption techniques. The AC electrical conductivity of the samples were measured between 25 and 400 °C under various atmospheres. The effect of the reactant mixture on the electrical conductivity and the catalytic performances of the samples were tested in propene oxidation. The results showed that the conductivity of SnO2/TiO2 samples depends strongly on the surface area of TiO2 support. The reducing effect of propene is more evident for higher surface area catalysts, these one showing also higher activity. On the other hand, the SnO2 deposition results in an increase of catalytic performances.

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Wheat continues to be one of the most cultivated cereals in the world, and also in Romania. Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina reduces the wheat yield and grains quality worldwide. In the context of climate change, leaf rust has become a more important problem for both wheat growers and breeders in our country. Use of genetic resources, carrying rust resistance genes, play an important role in breeding programs leading to resistant varieties, which can have positive impact on environment and economy. Therefore, the identification of resistance genes in modern wheat cultivars and breeding lines, and then selection of the best resistance genes combination(s) are the first steps for a successful breeding program. At present, one of the best known and studied adult plant leaf rust resistance gene is Lr34 that contributes significantly to durable leaf rust resistance. The functional markers that enable early detection of this gene are a major advantage in the wheat breeding.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of the slow rusting resistance gene Lr34 in Romanian wheat germplasm, using cssfr4 and cssfr5 molecular markers. Screening of 47 winter bread wheat cultivars and 47 breeding lines with these markers showed the presence of the Lr34 resistant haplotype in 62% (homozygous genotypes) of the total genotypes. A high frequency (79%) of Lr34 resistance allele was found among 47 breeding lines, suggesting that maintenance of a high frequency of this allele represents a real advantage for the development of adult plant resistance in Romanian breeding programs.

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Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis
Authors: Viorel Chihaia, Karl Sohlberg, M. Scurtu, C. Hornoiu, M. Caldararu, C. Munteanu, G. Postole, N. I. Ionescu, T. Yuzhakova, and A. Redey

Abstract

The surface dynamics of SnO2/γ-Al2O3 catalysts with different tin dioxide loadings (3 and 20 wt%) prepared by the impregnation method were investigated by using in situ electrical/dielectric measurements. The samples were characterized by BET, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. The propylene oxidation reaction, in the temperature range of 30–400 °C, was used to identify the catalytic activity of SnO2 based catalysts. Results are discussed on the bases of the electrical changes accompanying variation of the active phase content. The conductance/capacitance of supported samples evidenced the reciprocal influence of the support and of the guest oxide.

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