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Abstract

Human breast milk, infant formula, and follow-up milks were tested by a commercial electronic tongue (αAstree, Alpha MOS) with the aim to determine taste diversity, since it has been recently shown that infants exposed to different tastes early in life, develop different food preference at a later age. Human milk (36 samples) were obtained from 13 lactating women, while 12 samples of infant formula and 14 samples of follow-up milk were obtained from the Croatian market and opened prior to analysis. Human breast milk samples showed a much higher diversity than both infant formulae and follow-up milks. These results suggest that breast-fed infants are exposed to a broader sensory experience, while formula fed infants are exposed to less diverse taste. Future studies will probably answer how this influences later food choice, taste preferences, and consequently, risk of obesity and other chronic diseases.

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Physiology International
Authors: Zs Major, R Kirschner, N Medvegy, K Kiss, GM Török, G Pavlik, G Simonyi, Zs Komka, and M Medvegy

Background

Early repolarization in the anterior ECG leads (ERV2–4) is considered to be a sign of right ventricular (RV) remodeling, but its etiology and importance are unclear.

Methods

A total of 243 top-level endurance-trained athletes (ETA; 183 men and 60 women, weekly training hours: 15–20) and 120 leisure-time athletes (LTA; 71 men and 49 women, weekly training hours: 5–6) were investigated. The ERV2–4 sign was evaluated concerning type of sport, gender, transthoracic echocardiographic parameters, and ECG changes, which can indicate elevated RV systolic pressure [left atrium enlargement (LAE), right atrium enlargement (RAE), RV conduction defect (RVcd)].

Results

Stroke volume and left ventricular mass were higher in ETAs vs. LTAs in both genders (p < 0.01). Prevalence of the ERV2–4 sign was significantly higher in men than in women [p = 0.000, odds ratio (OR) = 36.4] and in ETAs than in LTAs (p = 0.000). The highest ERV2–4 prevalence appeared in the most highly trained triathlonists and canoe and kayak paddlers (OR = 13.8 and 5.2, respectively). Within the ETA group, the post-exercise LAE, RAE, and RVcd changes developed more frequently in cases with than without ERV2–4 (LAE: men: p < 0.05, females: p < 0.005; RAE: men: p < 0.05, females: p < 0.005; RVcd: N.S.). These post-exercise appearing LAE, RAE, and RVcd are associated with the ERV2–4 sign (OR = 4.0, 3.7, and 3.8, respectively).

Conclusions

According to these results, ERV2–4 develops mainly in male ETAs due to long-lasting and repeated endurance training. The ERV2–4 sign indicates RV’s adaptation to maintain higher compensatory pulmonary pressure and flow during exercise but its danger regarding malignant arrhythmias is unclear.

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