Providing quality requirements in Software Engineering is vital to ensure the product developed is able to deploy and function to meet the operational objectives. Software Requirement Engineering is the most complex process because it involves the integration of human, logics and process. Extracting or capturing what customers need and want is called Requirement Elicitation (RE) and it is the most crucial process in requirement engineering. If handled poorly, the cost of the failures would be very expensive. Most of the software projects that failed were due to poor requirements which occurred at RE phase. Thus, enhancing and optimizing the RE methods have been subject to a long research debate to ensure quality requirements are captured. Recently, Lean Six Sigma (LSS) had emerged as part of a continuous improvement in Software Development Life Cycles (SDLC). LSS is known for a systematic and structure business improvement successfully deployed in many fields of industry that contributes a significant gain not only in quality of products and services but also in operational costs and delivery. The objective of the research is to develop an integrated conceptual framework of LSS principles with Software Requirement Engineering methodology to optimize RE process. The article will produce conceptual framework as the comprehensive guidelines to capture quality software requirements.
Non-isothermal decomposition of chromium chromate hexahydrate, Cr2(CrO4)3–6H2O, was studied on heating up to 600°C in different dynamic atmospheres of N2, O2 and H2, using thermogravimetry (TG), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results obtained at various heating rates (2–20°C min–1) were used to derive kinetic (Ea and lnA) and thermodynamic (
S parameters.It has been found that the activation energies of the dehydration and decomposition steps in N2 are generally larger than in H2 atmosphere, and the reverse is true for the enthalpy change of the decomposition. Thus, it has been concluded that the reductive decomposition (in H2) is easier than the thermal decomposition (in N2 or O2) of the chromate. Irrespective of the gas atmosphere applied, the eventual decomposition product was a mixture of -Cr2O3 and non-crystalline chromate species, -Cr2O3+x. Above 400°C in H2 atmosphere, more deoxygenation of the non-crystalline chromate takes place at high rates of heating to give -Cr2O3.
Ternary complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with nitrilotriacetic acid as a primary ligand and glycine as secondary
ligand were prepared in slightly acid medium. Their molecular masses were determined by acid-base titration against standard
potassium hydroxide solution. Their molecular structures were found to be [M (HNTA)(glyH)(2H2O)]. Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed this structure and that the water present is coordinated to the central metal atom.
UV-Vis spectra showed that the complexes have octahedral symmetry. IR spectra suggested the presence of intermolecular hydrogen
bonding. This phenomenon was supported by mass spectra. The ionization constants of these complexes, as diprotic acids, were
The present work aims chiefly to study the thermal behaviour of complex compounds with general formula: [M(HL)
yH2O (where HL=C13H11N4O2=6-(2-pyridylazo)-3-acetamidophenol (PAAP), M=Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Fe(III) x=1, 3; y=2, 5) while A=CH3COO– (Ac), Cl2. The second formula is [M(H2L)
xH2O]Cl2yH2O, (where H2L=C13H12N4O2 (PAAP), M=Ni(II), Co(II) x=3; y=4, 6). The compounds were identified by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectra and TG/DTG,DTA methods. It was found that during the thermal decomposition of complex compounds water molecules of crystallization are released in the first step. In the next step the pyrolysis of organic ligand takes place. Metal oxide remained as a solid product of the thermal decomposition. Mass spectroscopy has been used for the determination of the thermal decomposition on the intermediate products. It was found that the thermal stability of the studied compounds increases as the ionic radii decreases. The activation energy E, the entropy change
S*, the enthalpy
H* change and Gibbs free energy change
G* were calculated from TG curve.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different irrigation intervals (every 7 and every 14 days) and fertilizers (farmyard manure, pellet granules and urea) on the composition of safflower seed and its oil stability. Fertilizers have a significant effect on the carbohydrate, fat, ash and protein contents of safflower seed oil. Pellet granules slightly increased the carbohydrate content, while farmyard manure increased the fat and oil contents of safflower seed oil. On the other hand, urea and farmyard manure increased the fibre content compared with pellets, which slightly decreased it. Irrigation every 7 days increased the protein content. Farmyard manure significantly (P < 0.05) increased the mineral content (iron, potassium and calcium). The use of FTIR spectroscopy revealed that the period of storage significantly (P < 0.05) affects oil stability. The peak intensities (absorbencies) recorded for oil stored at zero time changed after storage for 1, 2 and 3 days, indicating a clear effect of storage time on the oil, and the bands 3008, 2923, 2854, 1747, 1654, 1463, 1377, 1238, 1163, 1099 and 723 exhibited a clear decrease in the intensity of the individual group vibrations, indicating a decrease in oil stability.
This study investigated the diagnostic value of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and serum lactate in elderly patients with sepsis and evaluated their capacity to predict mortality and their correlation to Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. The study included 80 participants, divided into two groups: 40 cases (mean age, 68.9 ± 5.9) admitted to the intensive care unit and 40 healthy controls (mean age, 67.1 ± 6.2). Elderly patients with sepsis had significantly higher levels of serum suPAR and lactic acid compared to healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that suPAR (cutoff value, ≥4.37 ng/ml) has higher area under the curve (AUC) than lactic acid (cutoff value, ≥1.95 mmol/l) for diagnosing sepsis. Serum lactate has superior prognostic value compared to suPAR with AUC of 0.82 (cutoff value, 2.2 mmol/l) and 0.72 (cutoff value, 6.3 ng/ml), respectively. The diagnostic power of combined usage of suPAR and lactate serum concentrations showed AUC of 0.988 (95% confidence interval 0.934 to 1.0). The combination of both biomarkers either together or with SOFA score may serve as a useful guide to patients who need more intensive resuscitation.
A series of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of azo-compounds containing hydroxyl quinoline moiety have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moments, IR, electronic and ESR spectral studies. The results revealed the formation of 1:1 and 1:2 (L:M) complexes. The molar conductance data reveal that the chelates are nonelectrolyte. IR spectra indicate that the azodyes behave as monobasic bidentate or dibasic tetradentate ligands through phenolate or carboxy oxygen, azo N for 1:1 (L:M) complexes beside phenolate oxygen and quinoline N atoms for 1:2 (L:M) complexes. The thermal analyses (TG and DTA) as well as the solid electrical conductivity measurements are also studied. The molecular parameters of the ligands and their metal complexes have been calculated.
The thermal behaviour of some compounds derived from 5-phenylfuran-2,3-dione was studied. The thermoanalytical data relating to the decomposition steps and intermediates were completed with mass spectrometric analysis and infrared spectroscopy results. For some of the investigated reactions, the kinetic and structural data correlated satisfactorily.