Authors:G. A. A. Teixeira, A. S. Maia, I. M. G. Santos, A. L. Souza, A. G. Souza and N. Queiroz
Cloud point (CP), cold filter plugging point (CFPP), and pour point (PP) of biodiesel samples obtained from blends containing different amounts of beef tallow, babassu oil, and soybean oil were investigated by the corresponding conventional techniques and by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC). The CP and CFPP values correlate well with the crystallization temperature (Tonset) obtained from the TMDSC curves, being the highest for the biodiesel sample containing the highest amount of methyl stearate. A correspondence between PP and the peak temperature was also noticed, pointing out that pouring ceases after the crystallization of the heavier fatty acid ester. Among the samples of biodiesel, Bio-3 (highest amount of babassu oil) and Bio-4 (highest amount of soybean oil) showed better cold-flow properties, or in other words, lower values of CP, CFPP, and PP. Independently of the composition, the cold-flow properties of all biodiesel samples meet the requirements from the Brazilian National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Biofuels (ANP).
The objective of this study was to evaluate the acceptance of fermented anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) by consumers aged 18–67 (n=100) from two experiments, first using preference test and then by acceptance of formulation preference. Anchovy fillets were fermented with added NaCl and glucose with 4 different treatments: A (NaCl 1% and glucose 4%), B (NaCl 1% and glucose 6%), C (NaCl 1.5% and glucose 4%), and D (NaCl 1.5% and glucose 6% glucose). At first, the preference of fermented anchovy fillets with samples prepared in the form of pizza was assessed by applying a preference ranking test to 75 consumers. The results indicated the sample with 1% NaCl and 6% glucose as the preferred (P>0.05). Later in the second stage, the preferred fermented fillet was subjected to acceptance by 100 consumers who have the consumption habit of such product by using a hedonic scale of 9 points. The results indicated an acceptance rate of 79.8%. This work aimed to call attention to the importance of the acceptance of this food.
Authors:G. A. A. Teixeira, A. S. Maia, R. Rosenhaim, I. M. G. Santos, A. L. Souza, A. G. Souza and N. Queiroz
Biodiesel can be obtained from various fatty acid sources. Each raw material has a different chemical composition that leads to different properties. Owing to these properties, the mixture of different proportions of raw materials can lead to biodiesels with best features in relation to physicochemical parameters such as viscosity, oxidative stability and flow properties, generating a fuel whose characteristics meet the requirements of the current legislation of the Brazilian National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP). The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties of biodiesel samples produced from mixtures of beef tallow, babassu oil, and soybean oil. The thermo-oxidative stability was evaluated using thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that all samples were in accordance to the ANP specifications. The biodiesel obtained from a mixture containing 50% of babassu oil had lower values of pour point, cold filter plugging point, and freezing point. This biodiesel also showed a higher thermo-oxidative stability in synthetic air and in oxygen atmospheres.
Authors:O. S. Monteiro, A. G. Souza, L. E. B. Soledade, N. Queiroz, A. L. Souza, V. E. Mouchrek Filho and A. F. F. Vasconcelos
The vegetal species Pimenta dioica Lindl, popularly known as Jamaican pepper, is a 6–15 m tall tree, which belongs to the Mirtaceae family. Its fruits have an essential oil of great economic value in the international market, due to its high level of eugenol (its major compound), which is largely used in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, the extraction of the essential oil from the fruits of Pimenta dioica Lindl was carried out by the hydrodistillation method, using a modified Clevenger system. It was observed that the volume of the extracted oil reaches a maximum at 4 h, with a yield of 2.7% (m/m). The essential oil was characterized by physico-chemical analyses, such as density, refraction index, ethanol solubility, color, and appearance, besides UV–vis and infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Thus, eugenol was confirmed as the major component of the essential oil of Pimenta dioica Lindl (77%). The technique of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used for the determination of boiling point of the sample of essential oil from the fruits of Pimenta dioica (L.).
Authors:P. S. Epaminondas, K. L. G. V. Araújo, J. A. Nascimento, M. C. D. Silva, R. Rosenhaim, L. E. B. Soledade, N. Queiroz, A. L. Souza, I. M. G. Santos and A. G. Souza
Physico-chemical properties, spectroscopy, and thermal analyses were used aiming at evaluating the influence of toasting and of the flaxseed variety on thermo-oxidative behavior of flaxseed oils. Thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were associated to gas chromatography, infrared spectroscopy and UV–Vis spectroscopy, as well as to physico-chemical analyses to characterize the oils obtained from raw and toasted flaxseeds. No meaningful differences in the thermal and oxidative stabilities were noticed comparing oils obtained from the brown and the golden flaxseeds. Nevertheless, the UV–Vis spectra indicated that both flaxseed oils were at the beginning of the oxidation process. The previous toasting of the seeds led to a higher oxidation for both varieties being harmful to the flaxseed oil quality.
Authors:P. S. Epaminondas, K. L. G. V. Araújo, A. Lima de Souza, M. C. D. Silva, N. Queiroz, A. L. Souza, L. E. B. Soledade, I. M. G. Santos and A. G. Souza
Chemical and thermal analyses of golden and brown flaxseeds were carried out for raw and toasted seeds aiming at evaluating their nutritional and thermo-oxidative properties. Moisture, lipids, protein, soluble carbohydrates, and ash contents were quantified. Concerning lipids and proteins, in average, no meaningful differences were observed for the two varieties, being also equivalent to the literature data. The golden variety had a lower amount of fibers and a higher amount of soluble carbohydrates than the brown variety. The techniques of thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry were applied for elucidating the thermal degradation process of the seeds. The toasted gold and brown seeds were more stable to thermal decomposition than the raw seeds, under oxidative conditions. Golden seeds seem to be more susceptible to oxidation than brown seeds, under toasting conditions. Finally, no meaningful advantages were observed for the golden seeds in comparison to the brown ones.
Authors:K. L. G. V. Araújo, P. S. Epaminondas, M. C. D. Silva, A. E. A. de Lima, R. Rosenhaim, A. S. Maia, L. E. B. Soledade, A. L. Souza, I. M. G. Santos, A. G. Souza and N. Queiroz
Physicochemical and thermal analyses were undertaken to evaluate the influence of the temperature on the oxidation of sea fish oil once its polyunsaturated fatty acids deteriorate rapidly. Fish oil displayed four decomposition steps in synthetic air atmosphere and only one step in nitrogen atmosphere. The first step started at 189 and 222 °C for oxidizing and inert atmospheres, respectively. An OIT value of 53 min was measured at 100 °C. After the degradation process the peroxide index and the iodine index reduced from 35.38 to 9.85 meq × 1000 g−1 and from 139.79 to 120.19 gI2 × 100 g−1, respectively. An increase of the free fatty acids amount from 0.07 to 0.17% was observed while viscosity increased from 57.2 to 58.0 cP. Absorption at 272 nm also increased. The thermogravimetric and spectroscopic techniques are reproducible and versatile being an option for characterization of edible oil oxidation.
Authors:M. L. A. Tavares, N. Queiroz, I. M. G. Santos, A. L. Souza, E. H. S. Cavalcanti, A. K. D. Barros, R. Rosenhaim, L. E. B. Soledade and A. G. Souza
The higher is the degree of unsaturation in ester chain of a biodiesel, the smaller is its oxidation stability. Sunflower biodiesel obtained by the ethyl route possesses a high amount of unsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2), thus being more prone to the oxidation process. In Brazil, with the purpose of meeting the specifications of the Brazilian National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP), antioxidant additives, from synthetic and natural origins, have been added to the biofuel. Antioxidants are an alternative to prevent the oxidative deterioration of the fatty acid derivatives, as they are substances able to reduce the oxidation rate. In this study, the oxidative stability of sunflower biodiesel, obtained by the ethyl route and additivated with different concentrations of the antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and t-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), was evaluated by means of Pressure differential scanning calorimetry (P-DSC) and the Accelerated oxidative stability test (Rancimat, Method EN 14112). The results obtained by the two techniques showed the same oxidation tendency. Thus, P-DSC can be used as an alternative to determine the oxidative stability of biodiesel. The antioxidant TBHQ, added to biodiesel at the concentrations of 2000 and 2500 mg kg−1, raised the oxidation induction time to a value higher than 6 h, the limit established by the Resolution ANP number 7/2008, thus being the best alternative among the studied antioxidants.
Authors:R. A. Candeia, F. S. M. Sinfrônio, T. C. Bicudo, N. Queiroz, A. K. D. Barros Filho, L. E. B. Soledade, I. M. G. Santos, A. L. Souza and A. G. Souza
Biodiesel oxidation is a complex process widely influenced by the chemical composition of the biofuel and storage conditions. Several oxidation products can be formed from these processes, depending on type and amount of the unsaturated fatty acid esters. In this work, fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters were obtained by base-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil and physicochemically characterized according to standards from ASTM, EN, and ABNT. The thermal and oxidative stabilities of biodiesel samples were investigated during the storage process by pressure differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) and by viscosity measurements. Absolute viscosities of biodiesels after accelerated aging were also determined. The viscosity increased as the aging temperature and time were raised. The results showed that oxidation induction can occur during storage, decreasing the biodiesel stability. PDSC analysis showed that during storage under climate simulation the values of high-pressure oxidative induction times (HPOIT) were reduced for both FAEE and FAME.
Authors:M. B. Dantas, A. R. Albuquerque, L. E. B. Soledade, N. Queiroz, A. S. Maia, I. M. G. Santos, A. L. Souza, E. H. S. Cavalcanti, A. K. Barro and A. G. Souza
Even not being described in the EN 14112 standard, PDSC has been used for the determination of the biodiesel oxidative stability, by OIT and OT measurements. In this study, biodiesel blends were obtained by mixing soybean (BES) and castor (BEM) ethyl esters and its induction periods were measured by Rancimat and PDSC. The blends (BSMX) showed intermediate values of OSI, OT, and OIT, compared with BES and BEM. Although, the molar fraction of the components varied linearly in BSMX, OSI, OT, and OIT values increased exponentially in relation to the castor biodiesel amount in the blends. Introduction of castor oil biodiesel increased the blend stability, so the BSM30 blend reached the OSI limit of 6 h. OSI, OIT, and OT showed a high-linear correlation, pointing out that PDSC can be used in the analysis of this kind of biodiesel, with a smaller sample and analysis time, as compared to Rancimat. The use of biodiesel blends was a good alternative in the correction of the oxidative stability of the final product without the need of antioxidant addition.