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Information about children’s daily physical activity in Eastern-Europe is essential because of the increasing prevalence in overweight and obesity. Sixty-three children (age=11.16 ± 1.10 years; 33 boys and 30 girls) from two public elementary schools had their physical activity objectively measured using uni-axial accelerometer every 5 seconds for five consecutive days (3 weekdays, 2 weekend days). After data cleaning, 10 children were excluded from database. There were no significant differences in boys’ and girls’ BMI (17.6±2.2 vs. 17.1±2.4) and BF% (18.0±5.2 vs. 19.4±5.0). Children engaged in more sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity and had higher counts per minute during weekdays compared to weekend days. There were no sex differences in moderate to vigorous physical activity (87.6±22.4 vs. 93.5±20.6 min and 53.6±21.3 vs. 59.4±22.0 min) during weekday and weekend days. Data indicated that 96% of the girls and 92% of the boys met the international physical activity guideline for children of 60 minutes of MVPA, on weekdays.

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Abstract

The present study showcases the achievements of Slovakian Hungarian prose in the past three decades. It shows the changes in the literary institutional system brought about by the change of regime in 1989. It devotes detailed attention to the careers of Lajos Grendel and Alfonz Talamon; furthermore, it highlights some characteristic poetics and uses of language which resulted in intriguing works by Gábor Farnbauer, Attila Győry, Daniel Levicky Archleb, Zsófia Bárczi, József Gazdag, Norbert György, and Péter Hunčík. It also touches upon the experiments of the younger generation of prose writers such as Zoltán Szalay and Pál Száz.

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Abstract

Nowadays, the problem of energy poverty occurs more and more frequently and its solution is a serious and urgent task. Energy poverty is closely related to the poor energy performance of residential stocks. Energy poverty is simultaneously an energetic and social question, due to involving households having bad energetic parameters. Because of bad efficiency, the energy costs are highly related to earnings. It is not able to enhance the energy efficiency of buildings. Financial supports for endangered layers should contain measures to increase energy efficiency and decrease energy consumption. However, the concept of energy poverty is applied to social groups, like families or communities. In this paper, we extended the concept of energy poverty to SME (small- and medium-sized enterprises). The paper introduces the concept and the risk of energy poverty and the technology of measuring those risks.

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Across Languages and Cultures
Authors:
Andrea Kenesei
,
Zsuzsa N. Tóth
,
Elisa Perego
, and
Ágnes Godó

Anthony Pym: The Moving Text Localization, Translation, and Distribution. Benjamins Translation Library 49 Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 2004, 223 pp. ISBN 902721655X; Sándor Albert: Fordítás és filozófia [Translation and Philosophy]. Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó. 2003, 154 pp. ISBN 963 9372 39 0; The translator. Studies in intercultural communication. Special Issue: Screen translation, Guest Editor: Yves Gambier, Volume 9, Number 2, 2003. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing. ISBN 1-900650-71-1; Barbara Kroll (ed.) Exploring the Dynamics of Second Language Writing. Cambridge: CUP. 2003, 342 pp. ISBN 0-521-52983-2;

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
G. BujdosÓ
,
M. Tóth-Markus
,
H. Daood
,
N. Adányi
, and
P. Szentiványi

Eight registered Hungarian walnut cultivars were tested for composition and sensory properties. The samples were collected at the Experimental Fields of the Research Institute for Fruitgrowing and Ornamentals in Érd-Elvira major. Proximate composition, fatty acids, minerals (P, Na, Ca, Mg, Ca, Fe and Se), polyphenols and vitamins (C, E) were determined in four consecutive years 2003–2006. The tested cultivars have an oil content, which falls within the upper range of the literature values. Polyphenols, iron and selenium contents are also high while the values for potassium and phosphorus are in the lower part of the given range. In our case, the crop years make a larger difference in the composition than the cultivars. Tiszacsécsi 83 is the only cultivar slightly differing from the others in lower mineral and protein content.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
I. Radojčić Redovniković
,
M. Repajić
,
S. Fabek
,
K. Delonga
,
N. Toth
, and
J. Vorkapić Furač

Numerous recent publications have compared different cultivars of broccoli and different cultivation conditions suggesting that great variations in the content of phytochemicals among cultivars are due to genetic, and many environmental factors. The purpose of the present work was the quantification of glucosinolates, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and antioxidant capacity in the florescences of 13 genotypes from freshly harvested broccoli grown under uniform agroecological practices. The present results showed a significant variation in the level of bioactive compounds and consequently potential health benefits of broccoli (total glucosinolates 12.04–22.48 μmol g−1 d.w., the total phenolic content 15.54–26.92 mg g−1 d.w., total carotenoid content 0.19 mg g−1–0.46 mg g−1 d.w.). Studied cultivars were different in the level of the individual bioactive compounds, although some cultivars had higher content of all three analysed bioactive compounds such as Marathon, Ironman and General cultivar. In addition, these three cultivars showed excellent marketable properties and we choose them for the further breeding program in order to study variation among bioactive compounds in more details.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
P. Osváth
,
Zs Mészáros
,
Sz Tóth
,
K. Kiss
,
M. Mavroudes
,
N. Ng
, and
János Mészáros

Fatness generally has a negative influence on the performance of a variety of motor and cardiorespiratory fitness tests. The aim of this comparison was to analyse the effects of three grades of obesity on somatic growth, physical performance and oxygen consumption during exercise. Volunteer boys with definitely different grades of obesity were recruited for the comparison. In the group of mildly obese children (G1; n=23) BMI ranged between 24 kg.m −2 and 26 kg.m −2 ; and individual percent body fat was between 33% and 33.5%. In the case of moderate obesity (G2; n=23) BMI ranged between 26.5 kg.m −2 and 28.5 kg.m −2 ; and percent body fat was between 35% and 36%. In the extremely obese group (G3; n=20) BMI was greater than 31 kg.m −2 ; percent body fat was greater than 37.5%. Oxygen consumption during the 1,200 m run-test was measured by VIMEX-ST-type (USA) telemetric equipment.The greatest absolute aerobic power referred to the G3 boys, and the lowest oxygen consumption was characteristic of the mildly obese group. The very high differences between the body mass means resulted in a more marked inter-group variability in mean relative oxygen uptake.The predicted relative fat and high body fat content observed on the trunk, and the elevated level of resting blood pressure may indicate serious risks for the development of cardio-respiratory and metabolic disease. The very low oxygen consumption relative to body mass and poor physical performance are expected consequences of physiologic and environmental influences on the obese population.

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The spatial distribution of bivalves in relation to environmental conditions was studied along a second- and third order stream — medium-sized river (River Ipoly) — large river (River Danube) continuum in the Hungarian Danube River system. Quantitative samples were collected four times in 2007 and a total of 1662 specimens, belonging to 22 bivalve species were identified. Among these species, two are endangered (Pseudanodonta complanata, Unio crassus) and five are invasive (Dreissena polymorpha, D. rostriformis bugensis, Corbicula fluminea, C. fluminalis, Anodonta woodiana) in Hungary. The higher density presented by Pisidium subtruncatum, P. supinum, P. henslowanum and C. fluminea suggests that these species may have a key role in this ecosystem. Three different faunal groups were distinguished but no significant temporal change was detected. The lowest density and diversity with two species (P. casertanum and P. personatum) occurred in streams. The highest density and diversity was found in the River Ipoly, in the side arms of the Danube and in the main arm of the Danube with sand and silt substrate, being dominated by P. subtruncatum and P. henslowanum. Moderate density and species richness were observed in the main arm of the Danube with pebble and stone substrate, being dominated by C. fluminea and S. rivicola. Ten environmental variables were found to have significant influence on the distribution of bivalves, the strongest explanatory factors being substrate types, current velocity and sedimentological characteristics.

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Several Hungarian and foreign researchers have already studied the cardiorespiratory parameters of elite handball players. There are only a few studies though, which would separately review the changes in the functions of different organ systems. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of an intervention (physical activity) on the cardiorespiratory system. In this study, 16 elite female handball players participated, whose body compositions were measured and took two vita maxima tests. During the analysis, each cardiorespiratory parameter was monitored for every 20 s. Between the two examinations, 6 weeks passed and an intervention took place. There was a significant decrease in relative body fat and a significant increase in relative muscle mass. Remarkable positive changes occurred in the values of ventilation, oxygen pulse, and in both absolute and relative aerobic capacities as well. The mean values of the team developed as expected, but the individual changes in body composition and cardiorespiratory parameters are just as important. First, we chose four players, who had the most outstanding changes. Second, we analyzed such parameters, which were expected to show adequate results in terms of the apparatus(es) functioning.

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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
Richard Pinter
,
Evelin Molnar
,
Khabat N. Hussein
,
Adrienn Toth
,
Laszlo Friedrich
, and
Klara Pasztor-Huszar

Abstract

The objective of this study was to research the adaptability of insects in food products. The created hamburger patties were made with pork meat and insect batter (Zophobas morio) in a 50:50 ratio and the color, pH value, water-holding capacity, roasting loss, texture, microbiological traits were studied during ten days of refrigerated storage (5 °C, vaccum packaging, air cooling). Similar products have already existed in European markets, but these are made of 100% of insect meat or with additional vegetables as an ingredient. The mixture of insect and pork could offer a more accepted texture by consumers than the other alternatives. This study showed burger patties with pork meat and insect meat offering a softer texture and darker color, while it could increase the shelf-life of raw product.

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