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  • Author or Editor: N.V. Trubacheeva x
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The effects of alien substitutions of chromosomes on the heading time of ditelosomic (DT) wheat–barley substitution lines in which the chromosome 7HLmar from Hordeum marinum ssp. gussoneanum 4x replaced the chromosomes 7A, 7B and 7D of common wheat were studied. The plants were grown under short and long day illumination in greenhouse and in the field. The lines studied were found to differ in response to the length of the day. Under short day conditions, DT7HLmar(7B) and DT7HLmar(7A) showed an increase in the period before heading. In this case, the substitution effect of chromosome 7B was more significant than the effect of chromosome 7A. Under these conditions, the substitution of chromosome 7D did not have a significant effect on the heading time. Under long day conditions in the greenhouse and under natural conditions of a long day in the Novosibirsk region, substitution lines came into ear earlier than under a short day conditions and did not differ in the heading time. Allele-specific primers established the allelic composition of the genes Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1 and Vrn-B3 in ditelosomic lines. It was shown that the two DT7HLmar(7A) and DT7HLmar(7D) lines have the same genotype -VRN-A1b/VRN-B1c/vrn-D1/ vrn-B3 and that the DT7HLmar(7B) line has the genotype -VRN-A1a/VRN-B1c/vrn-D1. The results show that regardless of the genotype for the Vrn genes, the wheat-barley substitution lines react to the change in the photoperiod, especially in the absence of chromosomes 7B and 7A.

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As a result of crossing substituted lines Saratovskaya 29 (S29) 5R(5A) and S29 5R(5D) with line L2075 (T1RS·1BL), two homozygous wheat-rye lines were obtained in the F7 generation and identified as T5AS·5RL + T1RS·1BL and 5R(5D) + T1RS·1BL, respectively. The rye chromosomes yare of different origins: 5R originated from spring rye Onohoskaya and 1RS from winter rye Saratovskaya 5. A new Robertsonian translocation was obtained where the 5RL arm was translocated to the short arm of wheat chromosome 5A, resulting in the T5AS·5RL translocation chromosome. Two translocations, T5AS·5RL and T1RS·1BL, and one chromosome substitution, 5R(5D), were identified and confirmed to be compensating on the basis of genomic in situ hybridisation, C-banding and 1RS- and 5R-specific PCR markers. Evaluation of resistance to fungal diseases revealed that homozygous T5AS·5RL + T1RS·1BL and 5R(5D) + T1RS·1BL lines are resistant to leaf rust and powdery mildew.

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Wild barley, Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum (2n = 28) is a valuable source of genes that determine resistance to abiotic stresses. These resistance traits might be transferred to wheat due to the crossability of wild barley with bread wheat. The availability of reliable and rapid methods for the identification of H. marinum subsp. gussoneanum chromatin in a wheat background would facilitate the development of introgression wheat genotypes. For this purpose, we evaluated the applicability of eighty-seven H. vulgare EST markers for studying bread wheat – H. marinum subsp. gussoneanum substitution and addition lines. Of all of the markers studied, forty-three (49%) were amplified in H. marinum ssp. gussoneanum and wheat introgression lines. The identification of wild barley chromosomes using EST markers confirmed the GISH and C-banding data. Thus, it was established that the H. vulgare EST markers can be successfully used to identify the chromosomes of the H. marinum subsp. gussoneanum in introgression lines of wheat.

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