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Abstract  

Experiments on the removal and recovery of U(VI) from aqueous solution by tea waste were conducted. The adsorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer before and after the adsorption treatment. The removal of U(VI) amounts to 86.80 % at optimum pH 6. The adsorption process reaches its equilibrium in 12 h at 308 K, and the kinetic characteristic can be described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation. The amount of adsorption increases from 22.92 to 142.21 mg g−1 with the decrease of tea waste dosage from 100 to 10 mg for solution with an initial uranium concentration of 50 mg L−1. Desorption for the four strippants is higher than 80 %. The equilibrium data are more agreeable with Freundlich isotherm than Langmuir isotherm.

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Abstract  

A device of measuring the thermal conductivity of pellet of propellants and explosives has been constructed. A method and a calculation formula for determining the thermal conductivity of pellet of propellants and explosives under constant radial heat flow conditions by use of Joule effect is presented. Using this device and a microcalorimeter, type RD496-II, and two standard samples with known thermal conductivity, two instrument constant have been determined and the thermal conductivities of seven materials: plexiglass, teflon, DB propellant DB-2 (nitrocellulose(NC)/nitroglycerine(NG)/dinitrotoluene/dimethyl centralite/vaseline/PbO/CaCO3, 59.6/25/8.8/3/1.2/1.2/1.2), DB propellant SQ(NC/NG/diethyl phthalate(DEP)/binder, 59/29/7/5), DB propellant RHN-149 (NC/NG/triacetin (TA)/binder-I, 52/25/8/15), DB propellant RHN-190 (NC/NG/TA/ binder-II, 52/26/7/15), 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) at 298 K are measured. The results show that (1) the reproducibility of measurement for the heat (q) retained in investigated system after cutting the Joule current and the amount of heat flux through the wall of the investigated cylinder (Q s) are less than 0.50% and within 0.10%, respectively; (2) the standard deviation of the thermal conductivity determined by using this method is less than 1.0%; (3) the values ofq, Q s and internal radius of the cylinder are three principal factors affecting the magnitude of the thermal conductivity of these materials.

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Abstract  

The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential ecological danger and toxic effect of uranium mill tailings leaching solution (UMTLS) on aquatic animals. UMTLS was identified to contain two radioactive elements, nine heavy metal elements, and five non-metallic materials. The acute toxicity test indicated that the 1, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 h LC50 values of UMTLS to the zebrafish were 12.1, 7.1, 4.4, 3.8, 3.4, and 2.9%, respectively. In sub-lethal toxicity tests, superoxide dismutase, catalase, Na+–K+–ATPase activities, and malondialdehyde content were respectively determined and analyzed in the zebrafish gill, gonad, muscle, and liver after exposed to four different concentration levels of UMTLS for 7 and 14 days, respectively. The result showed that the most sensitivity of the antioxidant system in zebrafish tissues in UMTLS was gill, and then decreased in gonad, muscle and liver respectively. Na+–K+–ATPase activity in the liver and gonad may be considered as a reference biomarker of UMTLS stress. The data in this study may be valuable that the toxicity of such as the leaching solution of potentially hazardous material was compared with that of each constituent.

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Scientometrics
Authors:
Jun Yuan
,
Wei Yue
,
Cheng Su
,
Zheng Wu
,
Zheng Ma
,
Yun Pan
,
Nan Ma
,
Zhi Hu
,
Fei Shi
,
Zheng Yu
, and
Yi Wu

Abstract  

This research intends to investigate the patent activity on water pollution and treatment in China (1985–2007), and then compares the results with patents data about Triadic patents, South Korea, Brazil and India over the same periods, patents data were collected from Derwent World Patents Index between 1985 and May 2008. For this study, 169,312 patents were chosen and examined. Total volume of patents, technology focus, assignee sector, priority date and the comparison with other countries are analyzed. It is found that patents on water pollution and treatment filed at China have experienced a remarkable increase and the increase rate of patents filed at China change simultaneous with the percentage of domestic applications. However, the number of high quality Triadic patents with priority country as China remains small. Furthermore, in addition to individual patent assignees, both Chinese universities and enterprises also play important roles in patent activity of water pollution and treatment. In addition, the pattern of South Korea’s development can provide short-term implications for China and the regularity in Triadic patents’ development can provide some guidance to China’s long-term development. In contrast, the development pattern of Brazil and India is less influential to China’s development. Furthermore, China’s technology focuses on water pollution and treatment seem to parallel global and triadic patent trends. This research provides a comprehensive picture of China’s innovation capability in the area of water pollution and treatment. It will help China’s local governments to improve their regional S&T capability and will provide support the National Water Pollution Control and Treatment Project in China.

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Acta Chromatographica
Authors:
Mei-Xia Zhu
,
Sheng-Nan Li
,
Hai-Dan You
,
Bin Han
,
Zhi-Ping Wang
,
Yan-Xi Hu
,
Jin Li
, and
Yu-Feng Liu

High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC—DAD—ELSD) was established to determine paeoniflorin and albiflorin simultaneously in Radix Paeoniae Rubra. The assay was performed on a Diamonsil C18 (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) column by a gradient elution program with acetonitrile and aqueous formic acid (0.05% v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1. The detection wavelength of DAD was 230 nm, and the evaporator tube temperature of ELSD was set at 110 °C with the nebulizing gas flow rate of 3 L min−1. The temperature of column was kept at 30 °C. The linear ranges of paeoniflorin and albiflorin were within 0.050–1.510 mg mL−1 and 1.007–5.035 mg mL−1. The recoveries of paeoniflorin and albiflorin were 96.2–102.9% and 95.0–102.4%, respectively, while the relative standard deviation (RSD) of them was 0.2–2.5%. This method was quick, simple, accurate, and specific. It could be used for the quality control of Radix Paeoniae Rubra. The proposed approach was expected as a powerful tool for the quality control of Radix Paeoniae Rubra.

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