In this paper we compare the scientific research in the semiconductor-related field in China with some other major nations
in Asia. It is based on the bibliometric information from SCI-Expanded database during the time period of 1995–2004. We show
that China has been developing fast in semiconductor research, and become the second productive country in Asia as reflected
by the publication profile. The evidences indicate a significant increasing trend in the research efforts and readership among
Asian countries. Similar to the scientists in Japan and South Korea, Chinese scientists were more inclined to work in larger
groups, typically 4 or more authors. The assessment of research quality is further conducted based on citation-based measures.
As benchmarks, two western countries, namely USA and Germany, have been compared in the citation analysis. It is revealed
that the impacts of research outputs in the Asian countries, except for Japan, have been badly incommensurate with their devoted
research efforts compared with USA and Germany. Like most of other Asian countries the research results of Chinese scientists
in semiconductor have a low international visibility despite their strong research efforts and increasingly large domestic
readership. The application of Leimkuhler curve illustrates vividly the inequality of citation times among the compared countries.
Furthermore, the Gini Indices of each country and each pair of countries are calculated which illustrates again the inequality
of informetric productivities.
The paper compares the research performance in computer science of four major Western countries, India and China, based on
the data abstracted from INSPEC database during the period 1993–2002. A total of 9,632 computer science papers recorded in
INSPEC database were used for the comparison. The findings indicate that, on the one hand, the number of papers produced in
China has considerably increased in the past few years. Particularly, in recent years, China occupies a remarkable high position
in terms of counts of papers indexed by the INSPEC database. On the other hand, Chinese scientists preferred to publish in
domestic journals and proceedings and shares of SCI-papers to the total journal papers for China have still remained the lowest.
This indicates that the research activities of Chinese scientists in computer science are still rather “local” and suffer
from a low international visibility. Various scientometric indicators, such as Normalized Impact Factor, ratio of papers in
high quality journals are further adopted to analyze research performance and diverse finding are obtained. Nevertheless,
for these surrogate indicators, China has optimistically achieved great progress, characterized with “low level of beginning
and high speed of developing”. The policy implication of the findings lies in that China, as well as other less developed
countries in science, can earn relative competitive advantages in some new emerging or younger disciplines such as computer
science by properly using catch-up strategy.
This study develops and tests an integrated conceptual model of basic research evaluation from a varying perspective. The
main objective is to obtain a more complete understanding of the external factors affecting the publicly fund basic research
in a country. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with Partial Least Squares (PLS) is used to test the conceptual model with
empirical data collected from WCY (World Competitiveness Yearbook) and ESI (Essential Science Indicators) database. Interrelationships
among the research output and outcome, together with three external factors (resource, impetus, accumulative advantage) have
been successfully explored and the conceptual model of journal evaluation has been examined.
Authors:Nan Ren, Yu-ting Wu, Tao Wang, and Chong-fang Ma
36 kinds of mixed carbonate molten salts were prepared by mixing potassium carbonate, lithium carbonate, sodium carbonate in accordance with different proportions. The data of melting point and latent heat are measured by the analysis of DSC curves of 36 kinds of salts, which show that the majority of ternary carbonate’s melting points are close at around 400 °C. 24 kinds of eutectic molten salts were selected among 36 kinds of molten salts. With high latent heat, ternary carbonate salt has the potential to be employed for phase change thermal storage. The costs for phase change thermal storage of 24 kinds of carbonate salts are calculated. Finally, 13 kinds of ternary carbonate salts with lower cost for phase change thermal storage are recommended, where there are 6 kinds of mixed carbonates have the considerably larger latent heat of melting.
Authors:Jun Yuan, Wei Yue, Cheng Su, Zheng Wu, Zheng Ma, Yun Pan, Nan Ma, Zhi Hu, Fei Shi, Zheng Yu, and Yi Wu
This research intends to investigate the patent activity on water pollution and treatment in China (1985–2007), and then compares
the results with patents data about Triadic patents, South Korea, Brazil and India over the same periods, patents data were
collected from Derwent World Patents Index between 1985 and May 2008. For this study, 169,312 patents were chosen and examined.
Total volume of patents, technology focus, assignee sector, priority date and the comparison with other countries are analyzed.
It is found that patents on water pollution and treatment filed at China have experienced a remarkable increase and the increase
rate of patents filed at China change simultaneous with the percentage of domestic applications. However, the number of high
quality Triadic patents with priority country as China remains small. Furthermore, in addition to individual patent assignees,
both Chinese universities and enterprises also play important roles in patent activity of water pollution and treatment. In
addition, the pattern of South Korea’s development can provide short-term implications for China and the regularity in Triadic
patents’ development can provide some guidance to China’s long-term development. In contrast, the development pattern of Brazil
and India is less influential to China’s development. Furthermore, China’s technology focuses on water pollution and treatment
seem to parallel global and triadic patent trends. This research provides a comprehensive picture of China’s innovation capability
in the area of water pollution and treatment. It will help China’s local governments to improve their regional S&T capability
and will provide support the National Water Pollution Control and Treatment Project in China.
Previous studies on smartphone use motivation (SUM) and problematic smartphone use (PSU) have been limited in the utilization of regional samples of emerging adults (e.g., college students) and also in the foci on the direct association between SUM and PSU. To address such gaps, using data from a large, national representative sample of Chinese young adolescents and their parents this study examined the associations between adolescents' various types of SUM and their PSU, and also tested the potential mediating roles of smartphone use time (SUT) that adolescents spent on various activities in such associations.
A nationwide representative sample of 8,261 Chinese adolescents (Mage = 12.86 years old, SD = 1.76; 42.6% females) and their parents (49% mothers) participated in this survey study.
Instrumental SUM (i.e., to expand knowledge or acquire information) was associated negatively with PSU via longer SUT spent on learning and shorter SUT spent on entertainment and communication. Self-expression SUM (i.e., to gain acceptance and recognition of others by maintaining or improving self-images) was associated with longer SUT spent on both learning and entertainment, which, in turn, predicted lower and higher levels of PSU, respectively. Last, hedonic SUM (i.e., to gain pleasure) was associated positively with PSU via longer SUT spent on entertainment and communication.
These findings contribute to the literature by adding greater specificity in our understanding of the implications of SUM and SUT in the etiology of PSU during the critical life stage of adolescence in a Chinese cultural context.
Authors:Shan-Shan Ma, Patrick D. Worhunsky, Jian-song Xu, Sarah W. Yip, Nan Zhou, Jin-Tao Zhang, Lu Liu, Ling-Jiao Wang, Ben Liu, Yuan-Wei Yao, Sheng Zhang, and Xiao-Yi Fang
Cue-induced brain reactivity has been suggested to be a fundamental and important mechanism explaining the development, maintenance, and relapse of addiction, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Altered activity in addiction-related brain regions has been found during cue-reactivity in IGD using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), but less is known regarding the alterations of coordinated whole brain activity patterns in IGD.
To investigate the activity of temporally coherent, large-scale functional brain networks (FNs) during cue-reactivity in IGD, independent component analysis was applied to fMRI data from 29 male subjects with IGD and 23 matched healthy controls (HC) performing a cue-reactivity task involving Internet gaming stimuli (i.e., game cues) and general Internet surfing-related stimuli (i.e., control cues).
Four FNs were identified that were related to the response to game cues relative to control cues and that showed altered engagement/disengagement in IGD compared with HC. These FNs included temporo-occipital and temporo-insula networks associated with sensory processing, a frontoparietal network involved in memory and executive functioning, and a dorsal-limbic network implicated in reward and motivation processing. Within IGD, game versus control engagement of the temporo-occipital and frontoparietal networks were positively correlated with IGD severity. Similarly, disengagement of temporo-insula network was negatively correlated with higher game-craving.
These findings are consistent with altered cue-reactivity brain regions reported in substance-related addictions, providing evidence that IGD may represent a type of addiction. The identification of the networks might shed light on the mechanisms of the cue-induced craving and addictive Internet gaming behaviors.
Authors:Shan-Shan Ma, Chiang-Shan R. Li, Sheng Zhang, Patrick D. Worhunsky, Nan Zhou, Jin-Tao Zhang, Lu Liu, Yuan-Wei Yao, and Xiao-Yi Fang
Background and aims
Deficits in cognitive control represent a core feature of addiction. Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) offers an ideal model to study the mechanisms underlying cognitive control deficits in addiction, eliminating the confounding effects of substance use. Studies have reported behavioral and neural deficits in reactive control in IGD, but it remains unclear whether individuals with IGD are compromised in proactive control or behavioral adjustment by learning from the changing contexts.
Here, fMRI data of 21 male young adults with IGD and 21 matched healthy controls (HC) were collected during a stop-signal task. We employed group independent component analysis to investigate group differences in temporally coherent, large-scale functional network activities during post-error slowing, the typical type of behavioral adjustments. We also employed a Bayesian belief model to quantify the trial-by-trial learning of the likelihood of stop signal – P(Stop) – a broader process underlying behavioral adjustment, and identified the alterations in functional network responses to P(Stop).
The results showed diminished engagement of the fronto-parietal network during post-error slowing, and weaker activity in the ventral attention and anterior default mode network in response to P(Stop) in IGD relative to HC.
Discussion and conclusions
These results add to the literatures by suggesting deficits in updating and anticipating conflicts as well as in behavioral adjustment according to contextual information in individuals with IGD.