Nutrient removal has become one of the key challenges for wastewater treatment facilities all over the world due to the harmful effect of these pollutants on water bodies and ecosystems known by eutrophication, however, most of the currently used technologies are not focused on nutrients recovery from wastewater. Recently, using agricultural waste/by-products for adsorption of nutrients acquired more interest because of their abundant availability, low-cost, high efficiency and eco-friendly advantages and this method may become more environmentally sustainable through maximizing removal while delivering nutrient and energy recovery technologies with economically attractive return on investment.
This review investigates the application of agricultural waste/by-products as bio-sorbent for phosphate, ammonium and nitrate removal with a focus on the modification methods and the process mechanism including influent parameters, kinetics and isotherms.
Wastewater issues became a complex challenge in the world. There are several methods in wastewater treatment, such as chemical, physical, biological, and the combination of each method. However, each process has advantages and disadvantages. The physicochemical methods are common methods used in wastewater treatment, such as adsorption and coagulation. Adsorption and coagulation are excellent methods to remove pollutants. The adsorption process is greatly influenced by pH, adsorbent dose, temperature, and contact time. Coagulant dose, settling time, and pH are the main factors in the coagulation process. Chemical material as an adsorbent and coagulant has been studied in previous research, but recently, to substitution chemical materials is a challenging subject. Natural substances are potential new materials in wastewater treatment and became popular due to their efficiency and environment friendly characteristics. This review investigated the role of adsorption and coagulation in wastewater treatment and the utilization of natural materials as adsorbents and coagulants.