The protective role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) against the phytopathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) was examined in tomato plants. Seven different AMF isolates were used to determine which ones were able to induce effectively resistance against Cmm. Stems of seven-week tomato plants were infected with Cmm, then a disease severity index (DSI) was determined during the next three weeks. In addition to different responses to mycorrhizal inoculation, three levels of responses to the bacterial disease were recognized in treatments. Plants inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis (Ri) showed both the highest colonization and the highest induced resistance to Cmm while the effect of Funneliformis mosseae, Gigaspora margarita and Claroideoglomus claroideum on mycorrhizal colonization and on the induced resistance were intermediate and high, respectively. Subsequently, Ri was chosen to inoculate ethylene-insensitive tomato mutant line Never ripe (Nr) and its background (Pearson) to investigate the possible role of ethylene (ET) in the mycorrhiza-induced resistance (MIR). The results showed that Ri could induce systemic resistance against Cmm in the Pearson background, whereas ET-insensitivity in Nr plants impaired MIR. These results suggest that ET is required for Ri-induced resistance against Cmm. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effect of different AMF isolates on the response of tomato plants to Cmm and involvement of ET in MIR against Cmm.
Authors:Zoltán Mayer, Nguyen Hong Duc, Zita Sasvári, and Katalin Posta
The association between terrestrial plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is one of the most common and widespread mutualistic plant-fungi interaction. AM fungi are of beneficial effects on the water and nutrient uptake of plants and increase plant defense mechanisms to alleviate different stresses. The aim of this study was to determine the level of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), guaiacol peroxidase (POX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme activities and to track the expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene in plant-arbuscular mycorrhizal system under temperature- and mechanical stress conditions. Our results suggest that induced tolerance of mycorrhizal sunflower to high temperature may be attributed to the induction of GST, POX and PPO enzyme activities as well as to the elevated expression of GST. However, the degree of tolerance of the plant is significantly influenced by the age which is probably justified by the energy considerations.