This paper focuses on the Danish Act No. 347 of 1999, which granted IPRs on inventions at public research institutions to
the institutions themselves. After summarizing the situation in Denmark prior to the new law, I describe the Act's main features
and then I turn my attention to the solutions adopted by Danish academia to face the opportunities and challenges posed by
the new situation. Finally, using a unique dataset including all patents filed by Danish universities from 1982 to 2003, I
describe university patenting activity.
This paper reviews the literature on the concerns stemming from university patenting and licensing activities. Scholars investigated
threats to scientific progress due to increasing disclosure restrictions; changes in the nature of the research (declining
patents’ and publications’ quality, skewing research agendas toward commercial priorities, and crowding-out between patents
and publications); diverting energies from teaching activity and reducing its quality. A small section explores problems lamented
by industry. Each of these issues is presented and discussed, based on 82 papers published from 1980 to 2006. Some suggestions
for further research conclude the essay.
Authors:Nicola Baldini, Rosa Grimaldi, and Maurizio Sobrero
This paper reports results from a survey of 208 Italian faculty members, inventors of university-owned patents, on their motivation
to get involved in university patenting activities, the obstacles that they faced, and their suggestions to foster the commercialization
of academic knowledge through patents. Findings show that respondents get involved in patenting activities to enhance their
prestige and reputation, and look for new stimuli for their research; personal earnings do not represent a main incentive.
University-level patent regulations reduce the obstacles perceived by inventors, as far as they signal universities’ commitment
to legitimate patenting activities. Implications for innovation policies are discussed.