Authors:Setareh Mamishi, Faezeh Ahmadi, Maedeh Ahmadi and Nima Rezaei
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disease, affecting phagocytic blood cells, which predispose patients to recurrent infectious complications. Herein, an 11-year-old girl is described who presented with liver abscess at the age of 9 years. Positive dihydrorhodamine (DHR) and nitrobluetetrazolium (NBT) tests confirmed the diagnosis of CGD for the patient. Anti-tuberculosis drugs and parenteral antibiotic therapy were started. Unusual visceral abscess and recurrent infections should be considered as an alarm for primary immunodeficiency diseases, while early diagnosis and appropriate treatment could prevent severe complications and even death in this group of patients.
Authors:Elham Rayzan, Gholamreza Pouladfar, Nima Parvaneh, Mohammad Shahrooei, Zahra Aryan and Nima Rezaei
Chronic granulomatous disease is a non-prevalent genetic disorder due to different structural gene mutations encoding components of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase complex. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase is a complex made by a group of five proteins (subunit) and plays an important role in the innate immune system. Five structural genes are responsible for encoding each subunit, in which cytochrome b-245 alpha chain (also known as p22-phox) is encoded by CYBA gene. CYBA gene mutation leads to a group of autosomal dominant chronic granulomatous disease. Decreased level or lack of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase leaves affected individuals vulnerable to many types of infections and excessive inflammation. In this study, a family affected by BCGitis caused by a novel intronic autosomal recessive CYBA mutation (88,713,158 C > T) has been described. The proband is a 5-year-old girl with chronic granulomatous disease who was referred to the clinic due to BCGitis. The culprit mutation was detected following whole genome sequencing and was confirmed among the family members by Sanger sequencing. Being symptom-free at the time of diagnosis, despite the proband’s mother homozygosity, was a characteristic feature of this report. Remarkably, none of the CYBA-mutated members, as a known chronic granulomatous disease causing gene, has expressed symptoms other than regional lymph node enlargements. This might explain the gene mutation site importance in demonstrating different manifestations.
Authors:Ghamartaj Khanbabaee, Javad Enayat, Zahra Chavoshzadeh, Seyed Tabatabaei, Fatemeh Gorji and Nima Rezaei
Aspergillosis is one of the frequent causes of exacerbation of asthma depending on the geographical regions. The specific serum IgG level for aspergillus is a major diagnostic criterion in aspergillosis.Ninety-six asthmatic patients, with mean age of 5.4 ± 3.0 years who were referred to the asthma clinic of the Mofid Children’s Hospital, were enrolled in this study. Serum specific IgG for aspergillus was measured and its association with severity of asthma was evaluated.Nineteen asthmatic patients (10 females and 9 males) had aspergillus IgG antibody. Among them, severe persistent asthma and moderate persistent asthma were detected in 5 and 13 cases, respectively, whereas only one patient suffered from mildpersistent asthma. A total of 36.5% of the 96 patients had a history of atopy, while 26% had allergic rhinitis. There was an association between the severity of asthma and the presence of aspergillus IgG antibody. Moreover, the positivity for aspergillus IgG antibody was higher in older patients.Our results indicated an association between aspergillus antibody level and severity of asthma. It could be recommended that the IgG titer for aspergillus is measured in pediatric patients with asthma, whereas co-morbidity of aspergillosis and asthma increases the risk of asthma exacerbation.
Authors:Iraj Mohammadzadeh, Mehdi Yeganeh, Mojdeh Khaledi, Mohammad Salehiomran, Asghar Aghamohammadi and Nima Rezaei
X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), also known as Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) deficiency, is a primary antibody deficiency, characterized by low number of B cells, agammaglobulinemia and increased susceptibility to a variety of infections. Herein, we report a case of XLA with confirmed BTK mutation that developed neurological deficits. While we could not detect any responsible microorganism in spite of comprehensive workup, brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed moderate brain atrophy. The diagnosis of progressive encephalitis was made for this patient. Patients with XLA have a higher chance of encephalitis compared with other primary antibody deficiencies. Given the violent nature of encephalitis, it is a concern among XLA patients.
Authors:Mohammad Taghi Haghi-Ashtiani, Setareh Mamishi, Nasrin Shayanfar, Masoud Mohammadpour, Bahareh Yaghmaei, Mina Abedini, Narges Farahani and Nima Rezaei
Bacterial meningitis continues to be associated with high morbidity and mortality rate worldwide, especially in the pediatric age group. This study was performed to identify the microbial etiologies of meningitis among 31 children, who were admitted in the Emergency Ward of a referral pediatric hospital in Iran. Culture identification showed that Streptococcus pneumoniae (12 subjects), Haemophilus influenzae (11 subjects) were the most common bacteria, followed by Escherichia coli (7 cases) and Neisseria meningitidis (only one case). Antibiotic susceptibility tests revealed that vancomycin had the best effect on S. pneumoniae in comparison with other antibiotics, whereas H. influenzae and E. coli were more susceptible to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, and ceftizoxime than other antibiotics. In conclusion, despite the advances in antibiotic therapy and vaccine development, bacterial meningitis still is a health problem. S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and N. meningitidis are the main sources of bacterial meningitis, but other organisms such as E. coli should also be suspected, when a case is admitted to a referral pediatric hospital.
Authors:Narges Eslami, Marzieh Tavakol, Mehrnaz Mesdaghi, Mohammad Gharegozlou, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Anne Puel, Satoshi Okada, Saba Arshi, Mohammad Hassan Bemanian, Morteza Fallahpour, Rasool Molatefi, Farhad Seif, Samaneh Zoghi, Nima Rezaei and Mohammad Nabavi
Heterozygous gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) have increasingly been identified as a genetic cause of autosomal-dominant (AD) chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). In this article, we describe a 33-year-old man who experienced chronic refractory candidiasis, recurrent otitis media, and pneumonia resulting in bronchiectasis, severe oral and esophageal candidiases with strictures associated with hypothyroidism and immune hemolytic anemia. His son also suffered from persistent candidiasis, chronic diarrhea, poor weight gain, and pneumonia that resulted in his demise because of sepsis. The immunological workup showed that an inverse CD4/CD8 ratio and serum immunoglobulins were all within normal ranges. The laboratory data revealed failure in response to Candida lymphocyte transformation test. In addition, by Sanger sequencing method, we found a heterozygous mutation, Thr385Met (T385M), located in the DNA-binding domain of STAT1, which was previously shown to be GOF. These findings illustrate the broad and variable clinical phenotype of heterozygous STAT1 GOF mutations. However, more clinical information and phenotype–genotype studies are required to define the clinical phenotype caused by AD STAT1 GOF.