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The causative role of some infectious agents found in cases of feline pneumonia is under debate, because they are also part of the physiological microbiota of the respiratory tract of healthy animals. In this retrospective study, archived formalin-fixed and paraffin-wax-embedded lung samples of 69 severe and lethal cases of pneumonia in cats were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the detection of nine selected infectious agents: Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma felis, M. gateae, Chlamydia felis, feline herpesvirus type 1, feline coronavirus, canine distemper virus, and Toxoplasma gondii. The intention was to elucidate their immediate involvement in pneumonia formation. Due to the cross-reactivity of the applied antibodies, a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for both targeted Mycoplasma species was applied additionally. In the 42 cases (60.9%) positive for at least one pathogen, several agents were present in a high proportion of the samples (P. multocida – 34.8%, B. bronchiseptica – 29.0%), while others were present in a moderate (feline herpesvirus type 1 – 18.8%, M. gateae – 13.0%, M. felis – 10.1%) or low percentage (T. gondii – 1.4%). All samples were negative for C. felis, feline coronavirus and canine distemper virus. Mixed infections of up to four pathogens were more frequent than single infections. Mycoplasma preferably colonised lung tissue damaged by other pathogens because they never occurred as single infections. Pasteurella multocida, B. bronchiseptica, M. felis, feline herpesvirus type 1 and T. gondii showed abundant replication within lung lesions, thus suggesting a prominent role in pneumonia formation.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Andrea Klang, Sandra Högler, Nora Nedorost, Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang, Ákos Pákozdy, Bethan Lang, and Herbert Weissenböck

Hippocampal necrosis and hippocampal sclerosis in cats is a neuropathological entity which is a major concern in feline epilepsy. The aim of our study was to identify associated pathologic brain lesions possibly serving as aetiological triggers in this condition. Therefore, the formalin-fixed and paraffin waxembedded brain tissue of 35 cats diagnosed with hippocampal necrosis or sclerosis was examined retrospectively. In 26 cats inflammatory infiltrates could be found in the hippocampus or adjacent brain regions. Fifteen out of these animals demonstrated mild to moderate infiltrations by lymphocytes and complement deposition in the hippocampus similar to human limbic encephalitis, seven showed unspecific, predominantly non-suppurative inflammation, and two demonstrated suppurative inflammation of the hippocampus or adjacent brain regions. Additionally, one cat was diagnosed with central nervous manifestation of feline infectious peritonitis virus and another one with cerebral Toxoplasma gondii infection. Intracranial neoplasia was present in five cases altogether. Three of them comprised meningioma which was present additionally to lesions resembling limbic encephalitis in two cases, and a dentate gyrus alteration in one case. The other two tumour-associated cases comprised oligodendroglioma. Structural alterations of the dentate gyrus together with hippocampal sclerosis were encountered in three cases in total. Besides the case associated with a meningioma, one case demonstrated lesions resembling limbic encephalitis. A vascular infarct in the temporal lobe was encountered in one cat. In four cases no lesions other than hippocampal necrosis or sclerosis were found. The involvement of feline immunodeficiency virus infections, which may be able to produce hippocampal lesions, was not encountered in the cats examined.

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