Three distinct paragenetic and compositional types of tourmaline were described from the Velence Granite and the surrounding contact slate. Rare, pitch-black, disseminated tourmaline I (intragranitic tourmaline) occurs in granite, pegmatite, and aplite; very rare, black to greenish-gray, euhedral tourmaline II (miarolitic tourmaline) occurs in miarolitic cavities of the pegmatites; abundant, black to gray, brown to yellow or even colorless, acicular tourmaline III (metasomatic tourmaline) occurs in the contact slate and its quartz-tourmaline veins. Tourmaline from a variety of environments exhibits considerable variation in composition, which is controlled by the nature of the host rock and the formation processes. However, in similar geologic situations, the composition of tourmaline can be rather uniform, even between relatively distant localities. Tourmaline I is represented by an Al-deficient, Fe3+-bearing schorl, which crystallized in a closed melt-aqueous fluid system. Tourmaline II is a schorl-elbaite mixed crystal, which precipitated from Li- and F-enriched solutions in the cavities of pegmatites. Tourmaline III shows an oscillatory zoning; its composition corresponds to schorl, dravite, and foitite species. It formed from metasomatizing fluids derived from the granite. This is the most abundant tourmaline type, which can be found in the contact slate around the granite.
The foliated low-grade metamorphic rocks of the Triassic Bagolyhegy Metarhyolite Formation, mainly of pyroclastic origin, host post-metamorphic quartz-albite veins containing abundant tourmaline and occasionally rutile/ilmenite. The study of the Ti-oxide-mineralized veins with SEM-EDX revealed an unusual mineral assemblage comprising fine-grained Nb–Ta-bearing oxides (columbite-tantalite series, fluorcalciomicrolite and other Nb–Ti–Y–Fe-REE-oxide minerals) intergrown with Nb-rich polymorphs of TiO2 (anatase, rutile), ilmenite and zircon enriched with hafnium. This high field strength elements (HFSE)-bearing paragenesis is unexpected in this lithology, and was not described from any formation in the Paleozoic-Mesozoic rock suite of the Bükk Mountains (NE Hungary) before. The host metavolcanics are significantly depleted in all HFSE compared to the typical concentrations in felsic volcanics and the mineralized quartz-albite veins have even lower Ti–Nb–Ta concentration than the host rock, so the mineralization does not mean any enrichment. From proximal outcrops of the Triassic Szentistvánhegy Metavolcanics, potassic metasomatized lenses with albite-quartz vein fillings containing rutile/ilmenite are known. We studied them for comparison, but they only contain REE mineralization (allanite-monazite-xenotime); the Nb–Ta-content of Ti-oxide minerals is undetectably low. LA-ICP-MS measurements for U–Pb dating of Hf-rich zircon of the Nb–Ta-rich mineral assemblage gave 71.5 ± 5.9 Ma as lower intercept age while dating of allanite of the REE mineralized quartz-albite veins gave 113 ± 11 Ma as lower intercept age. The REE-bearing vein fillings formed during a separate mineralization phase in the Early Cretaceous, while the Nb–Ta mineralization was formed by post-metamorphic alkaline fluids in the Late Cretaceous., controlled by fault zones and fractures.
The Permian/Triassic boundary was recognized in continuous marine successions in several outcrops in the Bükk Mts, North Hungary and in a few core sections in the northeastern part of the Transdanubian Range. In the Bükk Mts, of four studied boundary sections only two proved to be complete. They represent an outer ramp setting. In these sections the topmost Permian is made up of dark gray limestone, rich in fragments of crinoids, calcareous algae, mollusks, brachiopods, ostracods, and foraminifera. There is a dramatic decrease in the amount of the bioclasts in the last two limestone layers, which are overlain by a 1 m-thick shale bed. The lower two-thirds of this bed still contain Permian fauna but its upper part is almost free of bioclasts. The overlying platy limestone contains a pauperized fossil assemblage indicating stress conditions. The two core sections studied in the Transdanubian Range represent an inner ramp setting. The uppermost Permian is made up of lagoonal-sabkha cycles. It is overlain by subtidal packstone-grainstone, rich in Late Permian fossils. Oolitic facies characterizes the boundary interval. Onset of ooid formation was probably the consequence of biotic decline leading to cessation of skeletal carbonate production. Along with oolite beds, stromatolites, micrite with "microspheres" and fine siliciclastic microlayers characterize the basal Triassic succession, reflecting overall stress conditions and the changing energy of the depositional environment.
Ferromagnetic grains in airborne dust are important indicators of vehicle traffic, some industrial sources and combustion/heating. Settled dust consists mainly of diamagnetic material; therefore accessory ferromagnetic grains are readily indicated by magnetic measurements. In this paper settled dust samples collected on a monthly basis in the years 2008–2011 were studied. Non-destructive magnetic measurements were followed by geochemical and mineralogical analyses. In selected samples we identified airborne anthropogenic materials (e.g. silicate and magnetite spherules), minerals from the natural environment and organic material. Seasonally appearing materials (e.g. soot in winter, plant fragments and pollen in summer) increased the mass of the settled dust, but not the magnetic susceptibility. Thus, we realized that the generally interpreted mass susceptibility in environmental magnetic studies would not always appropriately characterize the magnetic pollution. In the interpretation we gave preference to total susceptibility because of its direct connection to the pollution, except in comparison with metal concentrations.
Trends in magnetic pollution were eventually analyzed for 19 sampling sites. Irrespective of the degree and source of the pollution the monthly variation curves of magnetic susceptibility exhibit a general maximum (March-April), followed by gradual decrease. A corresponding peak is observed in the amounts of dust. Both can be explained by re-suspension of dust settled in winter. The additional maxima in the mass of the dust (June and August, respectively) are probably due to contribution from vegetation and/or an artifact from algaecide. For three key sampling sites comparison was made between the concentrations of 12 metals and the respective mass susceptibilities and good linear correlation was found for Fe, Mn and Zn for all, for Cr, Cu, Pb, V, Ba, Sr and Zr for two sampling sites. Cd, which is enriched in all samples, does not correlate with the magnetic susceptibility.
Although the Mesozoic rocks of the Transdanubian Range have been the subject of a multitude of different studies, mineralogical research is largely underrepresented. The clay mineralogy of Lower Jurassic (especially the Pliensbachian and Toarcian) strata was broadly investigated earlier; however, systematic high-resolution clay mineralogical studies remain scarce. Here we present a mineralogical study focusing on the Upper Pliensbachian strata of the Lókút-Hosszúárok section, located near the Eplény Manganese Ore Field. We identified dioctahedral smectite, randomly interstratified illite/smectite, illite as 10 Å phyllosilicate, quartz and cristobalite. Based on our new results we propose that the smectite was formed by aging of Mg or Fe hydroxide-silica precipitates. The smectite and cristobalite were presumably formed from the siliceous tests of radiolarians, whose abundance was controlled by a local upwelling system. The occurrence of Pliensbachian smectite in the Lókút outcrop shows similarities with the Úrkút smectites known from both Pliensbachian and Toarcian strata, which implies that similar processes controlled the sedimentation during the Pliensbachian as well as during the black (gray) shale-hosted ore accumulation in the Eplény and Úrkút basins.
The Úrkút manganese ore deposit (Transdanubian Range, Hungary) is one of the largest manganese accumulations to be formed during the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event. In the past 60 years, the area was investigated intensively. The core storage facility of the manganese mine had more than 20,000 sample pieces. Most of these samples have never been investigated. During this study, which is the first widespread clay mineral study in the footwall of the Úrkút manganese ore deposit, we investigated 40 samples from seven boreholes (footwall rocks, black/gray shales below and above the first ore bed, and manganese carbonate ores). Although previous studies assumed that smectite is associated only with the ore beds, our research revealed its appearance in the footwall (Pliensbachian) as well. Simultaneously, tripoli (the local name of completely bleached chert) can also be found in the footwall. Based on the investigated samples, a sharp geochemical difference was detected between Pliensbachian and Toarcian sediments. In this paper, we try to trace the relationship between the smectite content of the footwall and the ore bed and compare these results with the observed geochemical changes. Based on the new data, we assume that the ore accumulation was caused by a flow system (upwelling-controlled ore formation).