This paper presents a new approach for precision estimation for algebraic ellipse fitting based on combined least squares method. Our approach is based on coordinate description of the ellipse geometry to determine the error distances of the fitting method. Since it is an effective fitting algorithm the well-known Direct Ellipse Fitting method was selected as an algebraic method for precision estimation. Once an ellipse fitted to the given data points, algebraic distance residuals for each data point and fitting accuracy can be computed. Generally, the adopted approach has revealed geometrical aspect of precision estimation for algebraic ellipse fitting. The experimental results revealed that our approach might be a good choice for precision estimation of the ellipse fitting method.
Nineteen landrace populations of Turkish cultivated emmer wheat [Triticum turgidum L. ssp. dicoccon (Schrank) Thell.] were characterized in terms of three isoenzyme [Endopeptidase-1, Aminopeptidase-1 and Aminopeptidase-2] systems, by isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis. For overall loci, the mean number of alleles and effective alleles were observed as 2.00 and 1.37, respectively. The mean value of gene diversity and average gene diversity, in overall loci, were detected as 0.23 and 0.07, respectively. Actual genetic differentiation and gene flow between different populations were calculated as 0.19 and 0.11, respectively. Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that eco-geographical variables have significant effects on isoenzyme genetic diversity. Landraces that have desirable agronomical and immunological resistance traits that makes them adaptable to climate change and different eco-geographical conditions are important genetic resources to utilise for the improvement of future crops of modern wheat varieties. There is a need to assess the genetic structure and genetic composition of important agronomical characters and to determine the magnitude of the genetic diversity currently conserved in the germplasm of landraces, both in farm fields and in ex situ collections and finally, strategies for the effective use of landraces, particularly of emmer wheat, should be planned and implemented in Turkey were discussed.