A new objective texture test method was developed and compared with the
goose liver manual grading system. The whole fatty goose livers were purchased
from Bábolna Holdings and were examined at two stages: in the preliminary test
three times 3 pieces were taken, while in the main test five times 22 pieces.
All of them were examined both at a pre-cooled stage and after a 24-hour
storage on ice. The texture analyses were made by QTS 25 texture test system
immediately after the manual grading. A special probe with three needles was
developed for the Texture Analyser. Most of the texture parameters correlated
significantly with the liver grades, as shown by statistical evaluation of the
data. The best quality assessment was made by a binary equation where the hardness
value and the mass of the product were the independent variables.
Agricultural goods obtained and produced in Hungary have played an important role in the markets of Western Europe. By utilizing the ecological potentials of the Carpathian Basin, local inhabitants are in the position to produce considerable food surpluses in addition to meeting their own demands. With agricultural production becoming more and more intensive in Hungary, the application of mineral fertilizers also started to increase slowly from the 1960’s. From the mid-1970’s a uniform sampling, soil testing and fertilization extension system was created together with its own institutional and laboratory testing network. The intensive use of mineral fertilizers in Hungary lasted from the mid-1970’s to the last quarter of the 1980’s, during which an average amount of 230 kg·ha
NPK fertilizer was applied. In this period the so-called “build-up” fertilization was applied in conformity with the improvement of all other elements involved in the production technology, which was also clearly expressed in the agro-political objectives of those days aiming to obtain higher yields. At that time the nutrient supply and nutrient base of soils in Hungary increased clearly, so the production technology could no longer limit higher yields. In 1990 agriculture changed fundamentally and radically in Hungary, and the same was valid for nutrient supplies as well. At the beginning of the 1990’s there was a sudden decrease in the level of mineral fertilizer application (to below 40 kg NPK active ingredients·ha
), followed by a slow increase, which has reached the level of almost 70 kg·ha
by today. In the meantime the animal stock in Hungary has decreased and consequently the amount of manure has also fallen. All in all, the nutrient balance of Hungarian soils has always been negative since 1989. Due to the changes in its structure and ownership over the past twenty years or so, it has become very difficult to obtain reliable information about Hungarian agriculture. The Soil Resources Management General Partnership (in Hungarian: Talajerőgazdálkodás Kkt.) conducts extension work based on soil sampling and has a continuous flow of data on over thirty thousand hectares, beginning at the end of the 1970’s. Based on the analyses of these data it can be stated that the extra amount of nutrients over balance, applied during the period of replenishment (until the change in regimes) has been „removed” from the soil over the past fifteen years, consequently the Hungarian nutrient balance has become negative again. This kind of fertilization practice cannot be sustained in Hungary, as the maintenance of the production potential of Hungarian soils is far from being resolved at the moment; it poses risks to and questions sustainability, as well as it may cause a very serious competitive disadvantage to the country.
The objectives of this study were to monitor the changes in texture parameters of Hajdú cheese during ripening and shelf-life, and to determine the correlations between the changes in instrumental texture parameters and the age or sensory properties of the product. The mechanical parameters of Hajdú cheese samples made by 5 different manufacturing processes were determined with a QTS 25 Texture Profile Analyser. In addition to mechanical tests, composition analyses and sensory tests were performed. The empirical results of the mechanical tests were evaluated with statistical methods (single-valued and multivariate analysis). The age of the product can be estimated from the texture parameters and processed data as well, despite the sample inhomogeneity, which is due to the manufacturing processes.
Resection and subsequent end-to-end anastomosis of the windpipe is a tried-and-tested acceptable method for the surgical treatment
of segmental defects. There are a variety of different techniques for tracheal end-to-end anastomosis, but controversial reports
highlight the fact that the suturing technique of the anastomosis is still subject of debate. We aimed to show the postoperative
effects of the continuous and simple interrupted suturing technique respectively on the tracheal cartilage using differential
scanning calorimetry. Transsection and subsequent reanastomosis of the cervical trachea was performed in 14 adult beagle dogs.
The trachea was anastomized with continuous or simple interrupted sutures respectively depict no change in microcirculation
after the resection of the trachea, but significant decrease following the completion the anastomosis with continuous sutures.
Conventional histological analysis did not show any marked postoperative change in the tracheal cartilage but our DSC scans
clearly demonstrated the differences between the intact cartilages and the ones involved in the anastomosis.
In the present paper we report original thousand-seed weight data for the flora of the Pannonian Basin. Our goal was to demonstrate the usefulness of seed weight databases by analysing seed weight data in relation to social behaviour types and life forms. We specifically asked the following questions: (i) how the seed weights are related to social behaviour type categories; (ii) how the life form of the species influences seed weight differences between respective social behaviour types? Own weight measurements are provided for 1,405 taxa; and for 187 taxa we published seed weight data for the first time: these were mostly endemics, orchids and/or species with Pontic, Caspian or continental distribution. Several taxonomic or functional groups are underrepresented in our database, like aquatic plants, rare arable weeds and sub-Mediterranean species. Problematic taxa, some difficult-to-harvest species or species with low seed production and cultivated adventives are also underrepresented. We found that the plant strategies expressed by social behaviour types were significantly different in terms of seed weights. The lowest seed weight scores were found for natural pioneers, whereas the highest ones were found for adventives and introduced cultivated plants. Short-lived herbaceous species had significantly higher seed weight scores than herbaceous perennials. No significant differences were found between specialists and generalists within the stress tolerant group. We found that short-lived graminoids possess heavier seeds than perennial graminoids, perennial and annual forbs. Naturalness scores were negatively correlated with seed weights. Our findings showed that seed collections and databases are not only for storing plant material and seed weight data, but can be effectively used for understanding ecological trends and testing plant trait-based hypotheses. Even the identified gaps underline the necessity of further seed collection and measurements.
The combined effect of surgical treatment and consumption of so-called “CoD™ tea” (containing Uncaria guianensis, U. tomentosa and Tabebuia avellanedae) on expression of c-myc, Ha-ras, Bcl-2, Ki-ras and p53 key onco/suppressor genes, the carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9) and carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) tumour markers in blood samples of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) were investigated. Expression of genes followed the effect of the surgical treatment combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapeutic treatment; this may predict the outcome of carcinoma. Moreover their expressions might show possible additional effect of supportive therapy, e.g. CoD™ consumption. The antioxidant capacity of blood was also examined. Blood samples were taken at the day of, and one week, 3, 6 and 12 months after the surgical treatment. During that period patients got 0.25 l standard portion of CoD™ tea three times a day. The surgical treatment and neoadjuvant therapy were able to suppress the expression of c-myc, Ha-ras, Bcl-2, Ki-ras, p53 genes up to the twelfth month. Moreover, CoD™ tea together with conventional treatment caused a strong decrease in the expression of c-myc and Ha-ras oncogenes in comparison to the non-consumer control.