The purpose of this study was to determine whether intravaginal prostaglandin F2α(PGF2α) would be effective for the treatment of metritis or pyometra in the bitch. Seventeen bitches with metritis or pyometra were treated with PGF2α. Prostaglandin F2α(150 (g/kg body weight) was administered once or twice daily by infusing 0.3 ml per 10 kg body wt into the vaginal lumen. Bitches were also treated with amoxicillin (15 mg/kg body wt/48 h) and/or gentamicin (4 mg/kg body wt/day) administered as intramuscular (i.m.) injections. Fifteen bitches were treated successfully with intravaginally administered PGF2αfor 3 to 12 days and with intramuscularly administered antibiotics for 4 to 12 days. Success of treatment was judged by cessation of vaginal discharge, the absence of fluid in the uterus as determined by ultrasonography, and the overall health status of the animal. As two bitches with pyometra showed clinical deterioration in spite of medical treatment, ovariohysterectomy was performed after the first and the second treatment, respectively. No side effects (salivation, vomiting, diarrhoea, hyperpnoea, ataxia, urination, anxiety, pupillary dilatation followed by contraction) were observed after PGF2αtreatment. The disease did not recur during the subsequent oestrous cycles within 12 months after the initial treatment. The results demonstrate that intravaginal administration of PGF2αwas effective in 13 dogs (86.6%) with metritis or pyometra, and caused no side effects. Although the study was based on a relatively small number of cases, it is concluded that prostaglandin F2αcan be a useful means of treating bitches with metritis or pyometra. However, in severe cases of pyometra ovariohysterectomy is needed.
This paper presents the embryological and pathological features as well as the terminology and classification of common atrioventricular canal, a type of endocardial cushion defect. The authors give a complete description of an extremely rare congenital cardiac malformation in an equine neonate. The diagnosis of a complete, balanced common atrioventricular canal of type C in Rastelli’s classification scheme was based on two-dimensional, contrast and colour Doppler echocardiography and subsequent postmortem gross pathology. To support our diagnosis and study the pathophysiological effect of the alteration, physical examination, blood gas analysis and other laboratory tests, electrocardiography and thoracic radiography were also performed. Our search of the literature suggests that this type of developmental anomaly might account for a higher percentage of equine congenital cardiac defects than was thought earlier. We suppose that some previously described congenital heart abnormalities were misinterpreted: these anomalies could have actually represented some type of atrioventricular canal defect, resulting from the failure of the endocardial cushions to undergo complete and proper fusion.
Treated mastitis episodes at large Hungarian dairy farms were studied to determine the distribution of mastitis treated with antibiotics among quarters of the udder. Data were detailed records of all mastitis episodes that occurred during 1976 lactations in Farm A infected with Staphylococcus aureus (from May 1995 through July 1998) and 808 lactations in Farm B free from S. aureus (from January 1999 through March 2001). The distribution of treated quarters was compared with mathematical expectations based upon a random distribution in the case of Farm A. Results on mastitis incidences for different lactation stage groups showed an increasing incidence within subsequent lactation stage groups in Farm A. In contrast, in Farm B the mastitis incidence for lactation stage group between 35 and 100 days was the highest, but beyond 100 days the incidence decreased and reached the lowest value. Results gave strong evidence that the four quarters within the udder are not distributed randomly with respect to naturally occurring episodes of treated mastitis. More episodes than expected occurred in which only one or all four quarters were treated. Fewer episodes than expected with two or three treated quarters were observed. In both farms, the mastitis rate for rear quarters was higher than for front quarters, and the incidence of right quarter mastitis episodes was higher than that of left quarter mastitis episodes.
The aim of this study was to obtain prevalence estimates about the most important enteropathogenic bacteria:
Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Brachyspira pilosicoli, Salmonella enterica
A and C in Hungarian farrow-to-finish pig herds. A total of 31 herds were selected, from where six pooled faecal samples, each containing three individual rectal faecal samples were collected from fattening pigs of 5–6 months of age. All 186 samples were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of the pathogens mentioned above.
was found in 29 herds (93.55%) and in 108 samples (58.06%);
in 14 herds (45.16%) and in 23 samples (12.37%);
in 19 herds (61.29%) and in 53 samples (28.49%);
in 17 herds (54.83%) and in 40 samples (21.50%). We detected the presence of
A in 19 herds (61.29%) and in 46 samples (24.73%), while
C was found in 8 herds (25.81%) and in 11 samples (5.91%). All examined herds were infected with one or more of these agents. Herds with diarrhoea in the mid-to late finishing phase had almost 10 times higher prevalence of
than herds without such a history.
The technology of reproduction progressed considerably during the last decade, leading to a certain availability of in vitro methods for fertilisation, oocyte maturation and embryo culture. The most spectacular manipulations are cloning and transgenesis. This review focuses on the early appearance of germinal cell precursors and the long-standing fate of gametes in mammals. The evident complexity and long-term programming of events in gametes and early embryos explain part of the difficulties encountered during the development of in vitro and in vivo methods such as multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), oestrus synchronisation, ovulation induction, superovulation, in vitro maturation and fertilisation, cryopreservation, transgenesis, nuclear transfer and cloning) and the occurrence of unexpected alterations of development, e.g. embryonic or fetal mortality, large-weight newborn syndrome and other dysregulations in imprinting or DNA transmission.
The Pregnancy Associated Glycoproteins (PAGs) presented in this paper are largely expressed in the ruminant placenta. These proteins are classified as probably inactive members of the aspartic proteinase family. Pepsinogen, renin, cathepsin E & D and chymosine are typical members of this family, characterised by the presence of aspartic acids boarding the recognition sites. Secreted in the peripheral blood of the pregnant female from early pregnancy, these proteins can be used in serological tests for establishing different diagnoses. In the veterinary practice, these diagnoses are useful for both pregnancy confirmation and follow-up of trophoblastic function. The first aspect can help breeders in the management of reproduction, while the second one more specifically concerns clinicians and researchers wishing to establish a differential diagnosis of pathologic conditions affecting pregnancy.
During summer (June to August) of continental weather conditions treated mastitis episodes at a large Hungarian dairy farm were studied to determine the relationship between the distribution of mastitis among quarters of the udder and the lying behaviour (laterality) of the cows. There was a significant difference in laterality between cows that developed mastitis and cows that did not. Cows that developed mastitis, had an increased left laterality in lying, which was related to the increased probability of a right-sided mastitis episode. However, the effect was not significant due to the large variation in the data. At the same time, significantly more cows with clinical mastitis had a somatic cell count (SCC) higher than that of cows without clinical mastitis. While a significant correlation was found between the occurrence of treated mastitis cases and SCC ≯ 1,000,000, no statistically significant differences could be observed in milk production between the two groups.