We investigated the incidence of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in trauma emergency department (ED) and intensive care unit (ICU), to assess ED- and ICU-related predictors of BSI and to describe the most common bacteria causing BSI and their antimicrobial resistance markers. A prospective study was conducted in two trauma ICUs of the ED of Clinical Center of Serbia. Overall, 62 BSIs were diagnosed in 406 patients, of which 13 were catheter-related BSI (3.0/1,000 CVC-days) and 30 BSIs of unknown origin, while 15% were attributed to ED CVC exposure. Lactate ≥2 mmol/L and SOFA score were independent ED-related predictors of BSI, while CVC in place for >7 days and mechanical ventilation >7 days were significant ICU-related predictors. The most common bacteria recovered were Acinetobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates were methicillin-resistant, whereas 66% of Enterococcus spp. were vancomycin-resistant. All isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, whereas 87.5% of P. aeruginosa and 95.8% of Acinetobacter spp. isolates were resistant to carbapenems. ED BSI contributes substantially to overall ICU incidence of BSI. Lactate level and SOFA score can help to identify patients with higher risk of developing BSI. Better overall and CVC-specific control measures in patients with trauma are needed.
The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of ifenprodil and MK-801 on D,L-homocysteine thiolactone induced seizures in adult rats.Male Wistar rats were divided into following groups: 1. Saline-treated (C, n=10); 2. D,L-homocysteine thiolactone 8 mmol/kg, i.p. (H, n=7); 3. Ifenprodil 20 mg/kg i.p. (IF, n=8); 4. MK-801 0.5 mg/kg, i.p. (MK, n=8) and 5. Groups that received IF or MK 30 minutes prior to H (IFH, n=8 and MKH, n=8). Seizure behavior was assessed by incidence, latency, number and intensity of seizure episodes. Seizure severity was described by a descriptive scale with grades 0-4. Lethality in experimental group was recorded 90 min and 24 h upon D,L-homocysteine thiolactone administration.There were no behavioral signs of seizure activity in groups C, IF and MK.Pre-treatment with MK-801 (MKH) showed tendency to reduced incidence of convulsions, latency to the first seizure onset and the severity of seizure episodes, but statistical significance was not attained comparing to the H group. However, median number of seizure episodes was significantly decreased in MKH (p<0.05), comparing to the H group. On the other hand, ifenprodil (IFH) decreased the latency to the first seizure onset and increased the median number of seizure episodes (p<0.05). The majority of seizure episodes in IFH (72.1%, p<0.05) and MKH (73.1%, p<0.05) groups was grade 2 and significantly different comparing to the H (36.0%). Our findings suggest that MK-801 has a mild anticonvulsive effect on D,L-homocysteine thiolactone induced seizures in adult rats.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) emerged as one of the most important causes of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (BSIs), especially the multidrug resistant clones. The aim of the present study was to compare prevalence and resistance patterns of MRSA bacteremia in the major tertiary-care academic and referral center in Serbia before and after implementing an active antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. Laboratory-based before-after study was conducted during a two-year period (January 2012 to December 2013) in Clinical Centre of Serbia. Isolation and identification of bacterial strains were done following standard microbiological procedures. During the AMR surveillance, nearly twice more bloodstream samples were collected compared to the year without surveillance (1,528 vs. 855). In total, 43 isolates of MRSA were identified. MRSA was significantly more prevalent during the AMR surveillance compared to the previous year [14 (66.7%) to 29 (76.3%); P = 0.046]. During the AMR surveillance, MRSA more frequently originated from medical departments compared to intensive care unit, surgical department, and internal medicine (P = 0.027) indicating increasing MRSA infections in patients with less severe clinical condition and no apparent risk factors. Higher prevalence of MRSA and its lower susceptibility to erythromycin were revealed by implementation of active AMR surveillance, which may reflect more thoughtful collection of bloodstream samples from patients with suspected BSI.
Influence of folic acid on the CNS is still unclear. Folate has a neuroprotective effect, while on the other hand excess folate can exacerbate seizures in epileptics. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of subchronic administration of folic acid on behavioural and electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics of DL homocysteine thiolactone induced seizures in adult rats. The activity of Na+/K+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase in different brain regions was investigated. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into groups: 1. Controls (C, 0.9% NaCl); 2. DL homocysteine-thiolactone 8.0 mmol/kg (H); 3. Subchronic supplementation with folic acid 5 mg/kg for 7 days (F) and 4. Subchronic supplementation with F + single dose of H (FH). Seizure behaviour was assessed by incidence, latency, number and intensity of seizure episodes. Seizure severity was described by a descriptive scale with grades 0–4. For EEG recordings, three gold-plated recording electrodes were implanted into the skull. Subchronic supplementation with folic acid did not affect seizure incidence, median number of seizure episodes and severity in FH, comparison with H (p > 0.05). The majority of seizure episodes in all groups were of grade 2. There were no significant differences in lethal outcomes at 24 h upon H injection in the FH vs. H group. The activity of Na+/K+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase was significantly increased in almost all examined structures in the FH vs. H group. Subchronic folic acid administration did not exacerbate H induced seizures and completely recovered the activity of ATPases.