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Background and aim

Despite improvements in the imaging modalities, the optimal protocol for extracranial facial nerve imaging using 1.5 T MRI is still debatable. Pre-operative mapping of the facial nerve could provide valuable information for surgeons. The current study aimed to evaluate and choose proper 1.5 T MRI protocols for the extracranial segment of facial nerve pre-op imaging.

Patients and methods

Extracranial facial nerves on the tumoral and normal side of 19 patients (38 nerves) were imaged by 1.5 T MRI, using five sequences including T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T1-weighted-fat-saturated with contrast, Three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted and 3D T2-weighted. The visibility of each of the three segments of the extracranial facial nerve (the main trunk, cervicofacial and temporofacial divisions and terminal branches) in each sequence was assessed.


On the normal side, segments 1 and 2 of the nerve were identifiable in all patients and segment 3 was identifiable in 89.5% of patients in both 3D T1-weighted and 3D T2-weighted sequences. On the tumoral side, segments 1, 2 and 3 were identifiable in 89.5, 84.2 and 68.4% of patients, respectively, in 3D T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences. 3D sequences showed significant improvement in visualizing extracranial facial nerve and its branches compared to routine T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences.


Our protocol showed favourable results in visualizing the extracranial facial nerve and its branches. We believe the protocol used in this study could be used as a pre-operative facial nerve mapping method using 1.5 T MRI.

Open access
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Bahareh Salehi
Farahnaz Motamedi-Sedeh
Omid Madadgar
Iraj Khalili
Arash Ghalyan Chi Langroudi
Hermann Unger
, and
Viskam Wijewardana

Avian influenza (AI) A subtype H9N2 virus belongs to Orthomyxoviridae family and causes low-pathogenic disease AI. The use of gamma-irradiated viral antigens has been developed in the production of effective vaccines. In this research, LPAIV H9N2 strain, A/Chicken/IRN/Ghazvin/2001, was multiplied on SPF eggs and irradiated by a Nordian gamma cell instrument. Irradiated and non-irradiated AI virus (AIV) samples were titrated by EID50 method and hemagglutinin (HA) antigen was analyzed by HA test as the WHO pattern method. Infectivity of irradiated virus was determined by egg inoculation method during four blind cultures. The results showed that after increasing the dose of gamma radiation, virus titer gradually decreased. D10 value and optimum dose for complete virus inactivation were calculated by dose/response curve, 3.36 and 29.52 kGy, respectively. In addition, HA antigenicity of gamma-irradiated virus samples from 0 to 30 kGy was not changed. The results of safety test for gamma-irradiated AIV samples showed complete inactivation with gamma ray doses 30 and 35 kGy, without any multiplication on eggs after four blind cultures. According to the results of HA antigen assay and safety test, the gamma-irradiated and complete inactivated AIV subtype H9N2 is a good candidate as an inactivated immunogenic agent for poultry vaccination.

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