The aim of this study was to test nectin-4 by immunohistochemistry as a potential biomarker in enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA) of goats. Twentyfour archival ENA case samples [from 14 male and 10 female hair goats (Capra hircus)] were used. The samples were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (HE). Nectin-4 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry. By microscopy, tubular, papillary, and mixed patterns of ENA were diagnosed in the cases. Immunohistochemically, the tumours showed moderate nectin-4 expression (++) in 14 cases (58.3%), strong expression (+++) in five cases (20.8%), and weak expression (+) in three cases (12.5%), while two cases (8.3%) were negative. Normal nasal tissues were not stained with nectin-4. The results suggest that nectin-4 may be used as a valuable biomarker of ENA.
Mammary tumours are among the most common tumours in dogs and are of interest due to their similarities to human breast tumours. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are considered important in cell growth and development. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of IGF-I and IGF-II in benign and malignant canine mammary tumours. In this study, 10 benign and 10 malignant mammary tumours from the archives of the Department of Pathology were used, and five normal breast tissues were used as controls. It was observed that the expression of IGF-I and IGF-II was low to absent in benign tumours and increased in malignant tumours. The expression of IGF-II was higher than that of IGF-I. This study showed that IGF-I and IGF-II can be used as criteria for malignancy in canine mammary tumours. The results also indicate that IGF-I and IGF-II may be used as early diagnostic markers, and their inhibition may be used for the treatment of canine and human mammary tumours in the future.
The most common canine tumour is mammary tumour, which resembles breast cancer in humans. Microenvironment is a crucial factor in the formation of breast cancers. In order to distinguish between benign and malignant canine mammary tumours, this study looked at the immunohistochemical expression of Na+/K+-ATPase and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in tumour and microenvironmental cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase and BMP-2 in canine mammary tumours and their relationship with malignancy. In this investigation, 10 normal breast tissues were used as controls, and 28 benign and 46 malignant mammary tumours were taken from the archives of the Department of Pathology. The findings showed that malignant tumours expressed more Na+/K+-ATPase and BMP-2 than did normal breast tissue. Both markers had a negative or slight expression in benign tumours, whereas they considerably increased in malignant tumours. Both tumour parenchymal and microenvironmental cells in malignancies expressed Na+/K+-ATPase and BMP-2. Na+/K+-ATPase expression was observed to be more prominent in cells when compared to BMP-2. These findings also suggest that Na+/K+-ATPase and BMP-2 could be employed in the future to help diagnose canine and possibly human breast cancers earlier or as possible targets for treatment.