The liberalization processes, which started in the 90's in Europe, opened up a new area for competition policy and competition scrutiny and enforcement. Both ex-ante regulation and competition policy are responsible for the consumer friendly implementation and advancement of the legislation related to the liberalization of certain public utilities. Every industry that has incumbents faces the problem of granting access to the facilities owned by the “big ones”. Competition policy targets best achievable market conditions which provide the customers with the lowest prices and the market with most efficient behavior. In the long term this is only attainable with colorful market scene, vibrant conditions to operate and more options for the final customers to choose form. This, however, can be turned down by anti-competitive behavior of the participants that intends to eliminate competitors from the market. One of the various ways to achieve this is to use pricing methodologies which may straightforwardly result in forcing dependent market players to leave the playing field. Is there a way to control dominant undertakings' pricing methodologies? Can Article 82 of the EC Treaty be generalized? How did the European Court of Justice and the Commission formulate the practice towards these type of behaviors?
Palestinian refugees have a special status under international law. Their de facto statelessness provides for the discretion of hosting nations in treating them. A significant number of displaced Palestinians and their descendants have arrived in Lebanon, which treats them as “campers” and “temporary guests”, thereby depriving them of the rights to education, to work, to buy properties; overall, to legally exist. The situation of Palestinian refugees has been subject of cultural and legal research extensively. We have attempted to add new results to the existing literature and findings: the cultural-economic aspects of the existence of semi-legal Palestinians through a time-dimension. Our paper summarizes the findings of a three-tier field-study. We started with the first wave of interviews and surveys in late 2014, then completed the second round in late 2015, and finally, finalized our research in March 2016, with several rounds of interviews. Though we also visited settlements and camps outside the capital, the overwhelming majority of our work concentrated on Beirut and the Palestinian camps therein. We observed both cultural similarities and differences between the migrants and the host population. The added value of the research is that it highlights the amplitude and pervasiveness of these impressions.