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  • Author or Editor: Pál Fodor x
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On the basis of an „inventory of tax farms in the province of Buda” (defter-i first-i mukataa-i vilayet-i Budun), the paper describes the administration of Ottoman tax arms in Hungary in a comparative way (the reference area being the Lower Danube). Its main concern is the sixteen-century practice but the seventeenth-century transformations are also touched upon. The widely held view that the seventeenth century saw rapid spread of tax farming, is untenable for Hungary; in this period, the tax farms were increasingly replaced by „corporate estates” (ocaklik) not only in Hungary but in other parts of the empire as well.

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This short survey intends to be a certain kind of introduction to the studies published in this issue of Acta Orientalia . It was the present author who, in the late 1990s, raised the idea to publish a book which would tackle the problems of Hungarian trade in the age of Ottoman conquest (16th–17th centuries) in a comprehensive way. He asked the most renowned Hungarian specialists of the field to dwell on various aspects of the topic. Unfortunately, the project could not be accomplished in its entirety for a variety of reasons. Some colleagues, owing to pressure of other engagements, could not complete their studies, while others, like Ferenc Szakály, suddenly passed away. Particularly his death proved to be fatal, because it was him who undertook to write the most comprehensive contribution to our would-be book on trade and traders in Ottoman and Habsburg Hungary (including to a certain extent Transylvania too). Finally, those who prepared their studies decided to publish the collected material, benefiting from the kind offer by the editor-in-chief of Acta Orientalia . The texts were edited by the present author who in this article tried to outline what should have been written by Szakály in greater detail. He focuses on the fate of the Hungarian traders and, in line with Szakály’s results, he concludes that, while the 16th century, owing to the rapidly expanding transit trade, saw the emergence of a peasant-burgher middle class, the worsening circumstances in the following century led to its eventual fall. The causes of this fall are highlighted in much greater detail in the studies by Zsigmond Pál Pach (who also died in the meantime) and Lajos Gecsényi. From their contributions it becomes evident that in the long run the Ottoman conquest dealt a tremendous blow not only to the political, but also to the economic life of Hungary, inasmuch as the shifting of the international trade routes, the rise of rival commercial groups and the disadvantageous imperial policies gradually crowded out the Hungarians from their previous positions. The thorough study by Antal Molnár, dedicated to the activities in Hungary of two of these rival groups, the Ragusans and the Bosnian Franciscans, emphasises the interdependence between commercial and religious life of the Christians living in Ottoman Hungary and the Northern Balkans as well as the vital role the merchants played in shaping their “national”-religious communities. János Buza explores an important but neglected aspect of monetary history: how the great powers’ struggle for supremacy in Central Europe reflected itself in monetary politics. He points out that the Habsburg, Ottoman and Venetian governments supported the primacy of their respective currencies by setting their rates of exchange higher than those of their rivals.The above-mentioned project has been implemented by the generous support of OTKA, the biggest scientific research foundation of Hungary (No. T. 018025).

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The siege of Nándorfehérvár/Belgrade, the key stronghold of the southern defence system of mediaeval Hungary, was not an “ordinary” battle between the Ottomans and Hungarians; rather, it was a decisive clash which essentially influenced the subsequent history of Europe and Islam. As such, it can be seen as a symbolic point of contact and impact of three “civilisations”: the Ottoman/Islamic, the Byzantine (which by then had been largely incorporated into the former) and the Latin common-wealths. The importance of the Ottoman threat notwithstanding, only the remains of the Latin respublica christiana attempted to halt the conquerors’ intent of devouring the entire respublica . By their victory, the defenders rendered enormous service to the entire Latin world by allowing it to pursue its history by its own inner logic rather than by the logic of compulsions and threats such as those that governed Hungary.

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Polgár-Csőszhalom település tágabb mikroregionális kapcsolatainak vizsgálata a késői neolitikum gazdaságtörténeti viszonyainak rekonstrukciója szempontjából különösen érdekesnek ígérkezik. Ez a problémafelvetés vezetett a korábbi szakirodalomban már többször említett, az elterjedési térképeken ábrázolt Hajdúböszörmény közigazgatási területéhez tartozó Pródi-halom lelőhely behatóbb vizsgálatához. A halom légvonalban körülbelül 20 km-re délkeletre helyezkedik el Polgár-Csőszhalomtól, egy korábbi ártéri sziget keleti végében. A közel 4 m magas domb környezetének felszínét sűrűn borítják egy feltehetően Árpád-kori templom szétszántott, a mezőgazdasági művelés által folyamatosan pusztított maradványai. A topográfiai megfigyelések eredményeinek ellenőrzésére 2007-ben a Pródi-halmon kis léptékű kutató ásatást végeztünk. A késő neolitikus leletek mellett bronzkori, római császárkori szarmata és Árpád-kori emlékek kerültek napvilágra. A körvonalazott régészeti előzmények után végzett magnetométer felmérés eredményeként a Pródi-halom körül többszörös körárok-rendszer képe bontakozott ki. A 2008-as felmérés és a halom környékén végzett többszöri helyszíni szemle alapján rekonstruálhatóvá vált a kiemelkedéstől nyugati irányban, mintegy 550–600 m hosszan húzódó egykori újkőkori település. Ennek foltja lényegében követi a kelet–nyugati dombhát 92,5 m-es szintvonala által körülhatárolt területet, így közel 7–8 ha kiterjedésűre becsülhető. Ezen belül az egykori rondella területe nagyjából 3–3,5 ha területet foglalhatott el.

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The authors first review the investigations into the history of the lost mausoleum (türbe) and the surrounding complex of Sultan Süleyman who died during the siege of Szigetvár on September 7, 1566. Then they narrate the establishment in 2012 (reshaped in 2015) of a research group which, by developing a new concept and using interdisciplinary research methods (including landscape reconstruction), found the remnants (foundations) of the türbe on the top of the Turbék-Zsibót vineyard hill in autumn 2015, then, during the rounds of excavation in 2016–2017, the foundations of the adjacent mosque and dervish convent as well as the traces of a fourth building. Regarding the date of the construction of the complex, the authors are of the opinion that the main buildings must have been built around 1575. Finally, they enlarge on the reception of the findings and the potential the site offers for touristic and regional development.

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Authors: Tivadar Vida, Pál Raczky, István Fodor and István Vörös

Raczky Pál, Vida Tivadar: Bóna István (Heves 1930. február 10.-Dunaújváros 2001; B. Horváth Jolán: Bóna István irodalmi munkássága június 4.); Fodor István: Alojz Habovštiak (1932-2000); Fodor István: Balaguri Eduárd (1931-2004); Vörös István: Kretzoi Miklós (1907-2005)

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Authors: Miklós Szabó, László Borhy, László Kocsis, István Fodor, Siegmar von Schnurbein, Paula Zsidi, Pál Raczky and Dénes Jankovich-Bésán

Szabó Miklós: Doktori képzés az ELTE Régészettudományi Intézetében; Borhy László: Válogatás a Régészeti Doktori Program doktori témáiból (ELTE BTK Régészettudományi Intézet); Kocsis László: ROMEC XV. világkonferencia Budapesten, a Magyar Nemzeti Múzeumban; Fodor István: A X. Nemzetközi Finnugor Kongresszus (Joskar-Ola, 2005. augusztus 15-21.); Siegmar von Schnurbein: A magyarországi régészeti kutatás és a Römisch-Germanische Kommission kapcsolata; Zsidi Paula: Beszámoló a Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Régészeti Bizottságának 2003-2005. évi tevékenységéről; Szabó Miklós, Raczky Pál, Zsidi Paula: Az MTA Régészeti Bizottságának szakmai javaslatai; Raczky Pál: A régészeti lelőhely fogalmának tudományfilozófiai alapon történő axiomatikus meghatározása; Jankovich-Bésán Dénes: Magyar Régész Szövetség alakult

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