Current results in both theoretical and fieldwork in shamanism in Korea are getting closer to the unity about origins and state of kangshinmu and sesŭmmu, the two types of mudang. Our aim is to specify the differences based on the latest research results and to show the development of overlapping between them through the changing process of their position in today society. We emphasize the characteristics of the sesŭmmu which is disappearing or melting into a modern mixed mudang form. From a historical perspective differentiation could have evolved because of a kind of syncretism as a consequence of the different cultural traditions’ meeting thus modern situation can be seen as the sequence of historical process.
Literary societies are in focus both of literary studies and social history. In particular, they played an important role in the modernization of Central Europe in the 19th century. Becoming widespread in this era, they helped develop a democratic political culture and disseminated literature to a wider audience. Hungarian historiography has depicted this period as one of large-scale social segregation and a fragmented middle class which refused to have any contact with the bourgeoisie, while Slovakian historians have emphasized the exclusion of Slovaks from elite society. Kassa (today Košice), which was then situated in northern Hungary and is now the largest city in eastern Slovakia, has, however, been recognized as a more complicated example that challenges these assumptions. For instance, the importance of local citizenry was preserved in the ﬁrst half of the 19th century, in contrary to other cities in Hungary. The purpose of this article is to examine the composition of the most prominent social club of the town to provide fresh insights into the social history of Kassa in this period, and the larger processes shaping urban life in Central Europe in the period before the First World War. In particular, this article argues that a culture of both pluralism and exclusion was evident in the membership of Kassa’s Kazinczy Circle, and that their afﬁliations reveal a more complicated social network in the city, which both preserved communal solidarity during a period of rapid urbanization and encouraged the growth of modern democratic values.
Tivadar Rombauer was a less well-known, but important personality in Hungarian history. His entrepreneur career contains several business and technological innovations in iron industry, among which the foundation of the Metallurgical Factory in Ózd stands out. During the Revolution and War of Independence his role for managing arms supply nationwide is rarely emphasized by the regular commemorations of the most important historical momentum in Hungarian collective remembrance, although its relevance is undisputable. His Protestant Saxon origin interweaved with his patriotism resulted a typical Hungarian middle-class civic virtue, which never disappeared in later generations in the US, after his obligate immigration. In this study we scope on both the origins and influence of this valuesystem detailing Rombauer’s life-span, complemented with the family roots and some descendants’ fates.