The Schumann's sonata form (or sonata form-like) compositions little can be explained from the standpoint of tradition. Instead of classical dramatic contrasts, thematic action develops towards a definite goal. This type of musical narration often lasts to the end of the coda , in other cases the constant evolution of a thematic thought or the continual transformation of a motif receives the leading role. In order to obscure the essential events of the works or of the movements Schumann often employs “traditional” formal gestures. One of the most interesting is the repetition of a longer section in different keys, reminding of the exposition-recapitulation duality. The déjà vu feeling was generally one of the starting-point in Schumann's workshop to move away from traditional sonata procedures. Influenced by the narrative content of the works, various strategies were elaborated by him to excite the déjà vu, or to relive musical moments.
After the Turkish domination three monastic orders, the Jesuits, the Franciscans, and the order of the Hermits of St. Paul took major part at reconstruction, re-Catholicizing, and education in Hungary. Since the Paulines, as the sole order founded in Hungary, used the liturgy of Esztergom from the beginning of the 14th century, researches on 17–18th century music of the order focused mainly on mediaeval relics: survival of plain chant and the so-called Hungarian notation. Information about the musical life and the music of Paulines can be combined from two types of sources: from inventories, diaries,
of dissolved monasteries, and from musical manuscripts (choir-books, organ-books) written and used by Pauline monks. The song repertoire (hymns) of the Baroque and early Classic era had been regarded of lesser value by Hungarian musicologists although Hungarian translations of some of the songs and their concordance with Franciscan manuscripts suggest a widespread use. Hungarian folksongs and melodies rooted in the folk tradition were not foreign to the Pauline practice: P. Gábor Koncz closed his songbook with Christmas carols which were in wide use in Hungarian folk tradition. Some polyphonic pieces also belong to the accurate and authentic picture of Pauline tradition of the 17–18th century. This polyphony requires no professional singers, it is a very simple, folk-like homophony in pastoral manner appropriate to education at schools.
When Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály began systematically collecting folk songs, they almost exclusively encountered monophony, which subsequently featured as their compositional inspiration. As a musical phenomenon, monophony differed sharply from the harmonically based, often overharmonized, polyphonic universe of Western music. However, they also encountered coordinated folk polyphony, in the context of instrumental folk harmonizations. Taking into account the instrumental folk music both Kodály and Bartók collected, this study compares the two main types of folk harmonizations with folk song harmonizations in the works of Kodály, whose related theoretical statements are also considered. This study offers an in-depth analysis of six fragments from Kodály’s major folk-song arrangements to highlight the features of Kodály’s folk song harmonizations.
At the beginning of the 1970s there was a drastic turn in the history of Hungarian folklorism brought by the ‘dance house’ [táncház] movement. This movement, based on civil initiative, aimed to evoke and revive the patterns of peasant dance and music culture of local communities, preserving its aesthetic values. Within its confines, many young people followed the example of the initiators, Ferenc Sebő and Béla Halmos through the intensive appropriation of instrumental folk music. Their professional leaders were such folklore researchers as Lajos Vargyas, Imre Olsvai, and György Martin, later the amateur activity ignoring scientific requirements came to play a determinant role. (N.B. the “dance house method” was inscribed in 2011 on UNESCO’s Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.) As an urban subculture rooted in the peasant traditional culture, it expanded independently from the centrally supervised cultural establishment — without the control of the communist party. It seemed to be dangerous from ideological point of view, because it could have involved the ideas of nationalism, liberty, and self-organized communities as well.
Authors:Pál Heltai, Carlo Marzocchi, Borbála Richter, and Albert Vermes
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