The Sárrét marshland is situated along the northeastern foothills of the Bakony Mountains, along a NE-SW-trending neotectonic zone. Investigation of the marshland and the reconstruction of its evolution are especially interesting to compare to the present and the expected future stage of Lakes Balaton and Velence. Based on the sedimentological characteristics of the core sequence and the geochemical, physical, and mineralogical composition of the layers, three sedimentological cycles could be separated. The three cycles represent the most important evolutionary phases of lake formation: flourishing and progressive aging. First, a nutrient-poor, open-water lake existed, where clastic sediments (sand and silty clay) were deposited. During the second phase, phytoplankton-produced autogenic lime mud was deposited in the progressively more eutrophic water. Peat accumulation during the third stage indicates the marsh phase of the lake.The results suggest that the studied sequence developed from Late Glacial to Middle Holocene. According to radiocarbon dating the accumulation rate in Sárrét (Sümegi, this volume) corresponds to the sedimentation rates in the Tapolca Basin and Lake Balaton.
The Sirok Nyírjes-tó peat bog provides an almost full Holocene climatic record reconstructed by bog surface wetness investigations based on plant macrofossil analysis. The method of bog surface wetness reconstruction has not so far been adapted to the characterization of continental peat bogs. The emergence of a deep oligotrophic lake was dated to cc. 9500 cal. yr BP. The driest phase of the peatland was recorded at 6400 cal. yr BP, at the time of the Holocene climatic optimum. The deterioration of the climate, which began at 3500 cal BP, culminates here in the Carpathian Basin, as was shown by numerous records. An increase in the amount of Sphagna from 2800 cal. yr BP in the Nyires-tó peat bog marks the cooling of the climate and the accompanying rise in rainfall. The first oligotrophic Sphagnum peatland developed at Sirok between 2300 and 1500 cal. yr BP. Since 2300 cal. yr BP a record of alternating phases of Sphagnum peatlands and sedge/reed peatlands was demonstrated. A sudden expansion of Sphagna was recorded at least 10 times. Sphagnum-peaks at 2150, 1750, 1300, 1000, 850, 500 and 200 cal. yr BP perfectly match the humid periods identified in western Europe.
A new quantitative paleobotanical method for the description of Quaternary organic sediments is presented. The Peat Component System, with the paleobotanical description of macroscopic organic material, allowed us to reconstruct the hydroseral succession. The modified "semi-quantitative quadrate and leaf-count macrofossil analysis technique" (QLCMA) was used to quantify the peat components. This quantitative plant macrofossil technique, together with pollen, mollusk, and radiocarbon analyses, was used to reconstruct the postglacial mire development of an eutrophic peat bog in S Hungary. The analysis of the Holocene peat sequence was used to reconstruct the development of a filling-up spillstream of the river Danube. Multiple cores made it possible to reconstruct vegetation development in space and time.
Environmental historical analyses, including sedimentological, pedological, palynological, archeobotanical and phytolith analyses were carried out on samples derived from the Kadicsfalva/Cãdiseni archeological site. Our aim was to provide paleoenvironmental data to the archeological results in order to reconstruct the former milieu of the Gothic population, and to provide information regarding their environment management. At the end of the Pleistocene loess and alluvial loess developed from the eolian dust that accumulated on the wet surfaces of the Pleistocene sediments. The site provided favorable conditions to host a settlement and supports its long-term colonization owning to the riverside terrace surface location. The comparative analysis of the recent and the Gothic soil horizon proved that the recent soil horizon is over-utilized; its productivity can be maintained only by intensive fertilization and almost every one of its parameters is below the element and nutrient composition of the Gothic soil horizon.
The aim of this study is to identify the milestones of landscape evolution around the Ecse Mound (Karcag-Kunmadaras, Hortobágy National Park, Hungary) in the Holocene period by sedimentological and malacological analysis of strata underneath and within the body of the kurgan concerned, including that of the same characteristics of the artificially piled layers. An undisturbed core drilling was carried out and the sedimentological properties of both the mound and of the substrate baserock were revealed, analysis of which has been supported by three radiocarbon (AMS) measurements. The baserock formation during the last phase of the Ice Age, Middle and Upper Pleniglacial, and Late Glacial phases was followed by soil development in the Holocene, while the mound was constructed in two phases at the end of the Copper Age by the communities of the Pit Grave (Yamna or Ochre Grave) Culture. By publishing these preliminary data, it is also intended to draw attention to the need of focused research efforts by standardized methodology in kurgan research, in order to make the results of different studies consistent and comparable.
During the period of Ottoman rule in Hungary (1541‒1686), palisaded castles of differing sizes were typical elements in the border-castle networks on both sides of the battlefront: the Ottoman and the Christian. Archaeological remains (post-holes, beam structures, parts of palisades) complement the data in the written sources, making perceptible and measurable the great quantities of timber used in the building of castles. In the case of the Ottoman palisaded castle at Barcs and in that of the royal palisaded castle at Bajcsavár (southern Transdanubia), attempts were made ‒ on the basis of archaeological observations and reconstructions of ground plans ‒ to determine the number of palisade stakes used for the walls at the time of building, as well as to establish the number of trees felled in order to make them. By way of environmental history researches, an answer was sought to the question of how much the construction of these palisaded castles impacted on the forests in their respective districts. In the case of Barcs Castle, investigations were conducted into whether forest clearance in its vicinity can be reconstructed on the basis of pollen samples. Other issues examined are how far forest clearance extended from the two fortifications, its intensity, and the approximate quantities of timber yielded by it.
The medieval market-town of Sic (Szék in Hungarian) was an important Transylvanian settlement due to its remarkable salt mining. The impact of the mining activities on the environment and the history of water management were investigated based on a palaeoecological study, performed on the large Reedbed of Sic (Stufărişurile/Nádas-tó). We found that in the last 3000 years the anthropogenic impact has been continuous in the territory, but the types and intensity of the disturbances changed with time. The most notable environmental transitions took place after 1000 AD, suggesting a significant intensification of salt mining. Forest cover significantly drop, but salt concentration and the frequency of halophytic species in the investigated marshland increased during the Late Middle Ages. The dominance of halophytic marshland species reached their peak in the 17th century. This coincides with the apogee of mining activities and human lake management. The most remarkable deforestation occurred in the 18th century, when the present-day landscape with negligible forest cover was developed.
The loess/paleosol sequence near the village of Madaras is an outstanding record of Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic changes in Hungary and the entire Carpathian Basin. The present study highlights the results of preliminary micromorphological investigations implemented on 24 samples taken from two pre-selected pedogenized horizons of the sequence. Our work yielded interesting results regarding the evolutionary history and modes of pedogenesis in the studied section.
We present the results of the environmental historical and geoarchaeological analysis of Rákóczifalva-Bagi- földek and Rákóczifalva-Rokkant-földek archeological sites in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County. They were discovered in the course of several hectares of archaeological excavations related to the Roman Age and Migration Period, especially the Sarmatian and the Gepids era. A significant number of Gepids sites and finds were found in both the investigated areas and the wider area of the site, in the middle reach of the Tisza valley. So the geoarchaeological and environmental historical analysis of the Sarmatian and Late-Sarmatian and Gepids sites in Rákóczifalva can also provide a model for the settling strategy and lifestyle of the Sarmatian and Gepids communities. The purpose of our work is to present how geoarchaeological and environmental historical factors impacted local settling and lifestyles in the Gepids communities and Sarmatian-Late Sarmatian communities as well during the Roman Age and the Migration Period. In addition, to demonstrate the relationship of the Sarmatian and Gepids communities and their environment in the Rákóczifalva site compared to other Gepids and Sarmatian and Late Sarmatian communities in the Great Hungarian Plain.
Based on the number of objects containing animal bones and the amount of bones found in them, we can reconstruct considerable settling in the Celtic, Sarmatian, Gepids, Avar and Arpadian periods. The number of objects from the Linear Pottery culture (Great Hungarian Plain) and the Bodrogkeresztúr culture is high; however, the number of animal bones is low. On the basis of the bones discovered, we can count on a smaller settlement during the Tiszapolgár culture, the Hunyadihalom group, the Halomíros culture, the Gava culture and during the Scythians period.
In this paper, we present the results of the Sarmatian, Late Sarmatian and the Gepid findings since the largest number of animal bones (except the Avar period) turned up from these periods. Our aim was to compare the animal husbandry, meat consumption and hunting habits of the Oriental origin Sarmatians and the Germanic Gepids communities. Bone artefacts and bone anvils have been found in the archaeological material of both ethnic groups.