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To study the genetic characteristics of DT104 strains of Salmonella Typhimurium and the prevalence of Salmonella Genomic Island (SGI1) in Hungary, 140 recent Salmonella strains of food and animal origin were examined. For the first time in Hungary, the SGI1 was found in 17 out of 59 S . Typhimurium isolates (all proven to be DT104 phage type). These 17 strains were then subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) into 6 pulsotypes which were less correlated with the geographic origin than with the animal species of origin.

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In a three-year study carried out at the Debrecen-Pallagi nursery of the University of Debrecen, the nutrient contents, humus content and pH of the soil were determined in integrated and organic apple orchards established on brown forest soil with thin interstratified layers of colloid and sesquioxide accumulation. The organic orchard was only given organic manure (50 t/ha) in spring 2000 and 2002, while the integrated orchard was treated with 250 kg/ha complex NPK fertilizer (16.5-16.5-16.5) every year between 1997 and 2003 after the leaves had fallen. An additional 50 kg/ha N active agent as NH 4 NO 3 was applied every year, while 4 t/ha lime fertilizer (carbonation mud) was provided in autumn 2002 and 25 t/ha organic manure in November 2003. In 2004 no fertilizer was given to either orchard. The available forms of N (NO 3 - , NH 4 + , organic N and total N) and P (ortho-, organic and total-PO 4 3- ) were determined after extraction with 0.01 M CaCl 2 , while the Ca, Mg and microelement (Mn, Cu, Zn) content of the soil was extracted with NH 4 -acetate +EDTA (Lakanen-Erviö extractant). Potassium was measured in both extractants. The results showed that the inorganic, organic and total soluble nitrogen in the soil were significantly higher (P = 0.05) in the integrated orchard than in the organic one. It was found that the quantity and ratio of the organic N fraction was comparable with that of the inorganic N forms. The ortho- phosphate and total P fractions were significantly higher (P = 0.05) in the integrated apple orchard than in the organic orchard, while there was no significant difference in the organic P quantity. The potassium data showed that both the integrated and organic orchards contained a satisfactory amount of adsorbed K in spite of the poor colloid content and high soil acidity. The Ca, Mg, Co and Zn contents of the integrated soils were significantly higher (P = 0.05) than in the organic orchard. For Mn, however, no substantial difference was found between the integrated and organic orchards. With the exception of Mn, the nutrient concentrations reflected the differences in the nutrient management of the integrated and organic apple orchards.

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Until the middle of the nineteenth century Ózd was only a small settlement the residents of which were engaged primarily in farming. The center of the area was not Ózd, but rather the neighboring town of Sajóvárkony, which was also home to the registry office. The society and image of the village underwent major changes with the decision to establish an ironworks. As Ózd was slowly affected by urbanization, its population grew substantially. At the turn of the century, it was already seen as a small town. However, Ózd only became legally town in 1949. In this article, I present the evolution of the settlement from a small community with an economy founded essentially on agriculture to a medium-sized city with an economy based on industry.

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Csákó Mihály és az EDUCATIO®

Csako Mihaly, and the review EDUCATIO®

Educatio
Author:
Péter Tibor Nagy
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Educatio
Author:
Péter Tibor Nagy

Absztrakt:

2011-ben és 2016-ban népszámlálás és mikrocenzus zajlott. A korábbi évtizedekben készült népszámlálásokkal ellentétben, a KSH kutatószobájában a népszámlálás eredeti adatfájlja használható. Ennek segítségével sikerült a 18 éven aluli személyekhez hozzákapcsolnunk a saját családfőjük részletes adatait, s ennek segítségével bemutatni, hogy 2011 és 2016 között a társadalmi egyenlőtlenségek egyértelműen növekedtek mind a bölcsődéhez és az óvodához való hozzáférésben, mind az iskolai előrehaladásban. A népszámlálási és a mikrocenzusból származó adatok lehetővé teszik, hogy a közismerten megromlott kutatási körülmények ellenére az egyes iskolatípusok szociológiai összetételét nyomon kövessük.

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A kritikai társadalomtudomány-történet kihívása

The Challenge of Critical Social Science – History

Educatio
Author:
Péter Tibor Nagy

Absztrakt:

A tanulmány, mely az Educatio® társadalomtudományok erőtereivel foglalkozó tematikus számának bevezetőjéül is szolgál, a kritikai társadalomtudomány-történetírás sajátos kihívását mutatja be. A tudománymetria a tudományos erőtérben elért pozíciók, megszerzett tőkék alapján mutatja be egy-egy társadalomtudomány helyzetét, míg Mannheim óta tudjuk, hogy a társadalmi rendszer kihat a társadalomtudományok eredményeire, tehát a politikai hatalom által befolyásolt tudományos pozíciók/tőkék és a történelmi távú tudományos eredményesség között ellentmondás lehet. Kuhn óta tudjuk, hogy az önmagukat védő tudományos paradigmák nem adnak pozitív választ a jövőbe mutató tudományos kihívásokra. A tanulmány megoldásokat sorol a kétféle megközelítésmód különbségének csökkentésére, bár azzal a bourdieu-i csapdával, hogy az önkritikus tudomány éppen önkritikusságával próbálja önmagát a valóságosnál hitelesebbnek feltüntetni, így is szembe kell néznie.

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Summary  

The geodesic graph of Riemannian spaces all geodesics of which are orbits of 1-parameter isometry groups was constructed by J. Szenthe in 1976 and it became a basic tool for studying such spaces, called g.o.\ spaces. This infinitesimal structure corresponds to the reductive complement \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $\mathfrak m$ \end{document} in the case of naturally reductive spaces. The systematic study of Riemannian g.o. spaces was started by O. Kowalski and L.~Vanhecke in 1991, when they introduced the most important definitions, classified the low-dimensional examples and described the basic constructions of this theory. The aim of this paper is to investigate a connection theoretical analogue of the concept of the geodesic graph.

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