The paper claims that apart from the Dubrovnik literary language of the “Golden Age” (15th–16th c.) based on the Čakavian dialect it was the Štokavian dialect that gained dominance both in urban everyday speech and the language of administration reflecting it. The Štokavian dialect had completely ruled out the Čakavian dialect even from literature by the 17th century. This spontaneous linguistic process significantly contributed to the emergence of a unified Serbo-Croatian literary language in the middle of the 19th century.
The present paper draws the reader's attention to the lexical influence of Scandinavian languages on the languages of the Eastern Slavic bloc as well as to the „reverse side of the coin” i.e. the Eastern Slavic lexical influence on the Scandinavian languages. The following points are discussed in the study:1)Russian words of Scandinavian origin.-As it is widely known, in the case of Russian, the influence of the Scandinavian languages began with the emergence of the Rurikovich-dynasty. The changes resulting from it have had their linguistic consequences in Russian, among others, in the form of some loanwords of Scandinavian origin. (About the historical background see Font 1995: 6-42, Pátrovics 1997: 109-116, and ?????????? 1978. Be reminded furthermore that in the case of Polish, the Scandinavian lexical influence can be minimized to inter-state relations to a much lesser degree than in the case of Russian. About the Scandinavian-Polish lexical contacts see Jurkowski 1993: 18-25, Pátrovics 2000: 221-226). 2)Words of Eastern Slavic origin in Scandinavian languages such as Swedish, Norwegian, Danish and Icelandic. 3) Analysis of two etymologies: shelk (silk) and chmel' (hops). 4)'Sovietisms' in the Scandinavian languages. 5)Two Russian toponyms of Scandinavian origin. 6)Epilog and conclusions. 7) References.-I hope that this two-directional approach puts the matter in different new light and the linguistic data will help to understand the intricate question of interrelation of Eastern Slavic and Scandinavian languages.
The present paper deals with the Austrian phraseological units containing elements of Slavic origin. In this paper these phraseological units will be presented and their history described. The author comes to the conclusion that most of the Slavic elements in the Austrian phraseology are of Czech origin.
This paper seeks to find an answer to the question of whether an all-embracing “great theory” on aspect is possible. First, the author describes shortly the situation in aspect research of our days, then he draws a comparison between the present state of aspect research and that of the theoretical physics. Refuting existing views of human language and its category, the aspect as a stable, once and for all fundamental and completely rational system which acts by rules, the paper presents arguments in favour of the existence of communication fragments being the fundamental units of language (and aspectual) usage.
By common consent, one of the most characteristic categories of the Polish verb is aspect. There can be little doubt that the origin of the aspect category may lie in Proto-Slavic or much further back in the Proto-Indo- European language. It is a moot point whether the aspect was already a strong category in Proto-Slavic. Nonetheless, it is beyond dispute that the consequences of its emergence were far-reaching and took a relatively long time to clarify in the daughter languages. The various categories such as aspect, biaspectuality, and tense providing the main themes of the present paper were closely related and did interact, however, the essential effects of their interaction can only be identified by scrutiny.
In Old Church Slavonic, a certain degree of competition between the category of aspect and that of tense can already be observed, and this is also evident in Old Polish, in which tenses like the aorist and the imperfect were slowly falling into disuse. Their occurrence is quite rare even in the earliest Polish written records. In due course, the perfect tense gained ground and the pluperfect became almost completely obsolete. In Modern Polish, the latter only serves to archaize literary texts. In the further stages of development, the aspectual opposition also extended to the future tenses thereby affecting the entire Polish tense system. Also, in the aspect-tense system of the Modern Polish language, the tendency of the category of aspect to prevail over the category of tense together with the gradual decline in the number of biaspectual verbs, still common in the 16th century, seems to be quite clear.
Most of the originally biaspectual initial verbs were later perfectivized by means of prefixes. Thus, the simple verbal bases and their perfectivized derivatives could establish an aspectual partnership. In the case of verbs with foreign roots, the prefix z-/ s- played a pivotal role in perfectivation, while other prefixes such as za- and po- had a less important role. The process of perfectivation in Polish was so extensive that only few biaspectual verbs remained free of the opposition of aspect as reminders of the fact that the development of this category is still an ongoing process. This is also shown by the more recent biaspectual verbs with borrowed roots for which it can be anticipated that they will form their perfective counterparts soon.
The paper concludes that the amount of verbs with an aspectually uncertain status is likely to be a reliable indicator of the development of the aspect category for the earlier periods in the history of the Polish language. An important role in this may play the diachronic corpus-based investigation, which, though for a long time considered a stepchild of Slavic aspectual research, may still help to clarify a number of issues related to the category of aspect.