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Abstract

In this paper we present and analyse the 6th–7th-century Byzantine coins found at Orosháza and its surroundings. The first Byzantine coin – a follis of Justinian I – was found in Szentetornya in 1877. Using metal detectors during archaeological survey eight Byzantine coins had come to light: a follis of Justinian I, five folles, a half-follis of Justin II, and two folles of Heraclius. A greater part of them was accurately identified. Here we'll analyse their role outside the Byzantine Empire, as compared to the coin circulation in the Avar Age Carpathian Basin. We try to answer the question why Byzantine coins relatively frequently occurred at Orosháza and its surroundings.

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Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Tibor József Novák
,
Árpád Csámer
,
József Incze
,
István Papp
, and
Péter Rózsa

The forms and stocks of secondary carbonate accumulations and the distribution of secondary carbonate content were investigated in 20 soil profiles from Nagy-hegy, Tokaj. The secondary carbonate content varied to a great extent under different lithological conditions. The frequency of carbonate crusts coating the coarse fragments to a thickness of 1–7 mm was especially conspicuous. In selected profiles the amount of secondary carbonates was analysed separately for three carbonate pools: in the fine earth (<2 mm), in carbonate crusts and other concentrations, and in the skeletal part of the soils (dominantly dacite blocks and boulders). In one profile a calculation was made of the calcium carbonate stocks (in kg m−2) in the separate fractions of the fine earth, the skeletal fraction and the carbonate crusts and concentrations. The values obtained for the distinct soil horizons were then summed for the whole profile above the continuous hard rock.

The loess deposits can be regarded as the primary source of calcium carbonate, but many types of secondary carbonate accumulations occurred in places where the loess deposits were completely eroded or the original surface of the soil was only preserved on terraces with retaining walls. The results suggest that the highest accumulation of calcium carbonate occurs in profiles where loess, redeposited loess or colluvial deposit covers weathered volcanic rocks (pyroxene dacite), resulting in lithological discontinuity.

The carbonate crusts consisted of 55–96 % (m/m) CaCO3, and the coarse fraction (dacite boulders and blocks) also had a higher calcium carbonate content (5–10 % m/m) than the non-weathered pyroxene dacite. The calcium carbonate stocks in Calcic accumulation horizons proved to be 2.5 times higher than in the overlying soil horizons.

The accumulation forms of carbonates in the soil profiles and the lack of loess deposits on the top of the soil profiles suggest that the calcium carbonate was accumulated in the transitional zone between the loess and the weathered volcanic rocks. This appears to have taken place under humid climatic conditions, unlike the recent climate, and can thus be regarded at least partially as the result of paleoecological processes.

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Archaeologiai Értesítő
Authors:
Éva Kelemen
,
Mária Tóth
,
Ferenc Kristály
,
Péter Rózsa
, and
István Nyilas

The study focuses on the comparative archaeometric (petrographic, geochemical and archaeobotanical) analysis of the brick samples from the excavation of twenty-four rural churches of the Árpádian Age and the Late Middle Ages (11th–16th centuries), two kindred monasteries and three Árpádian Age settlements in Counties Békés and Csongrád. One of the main goals of the analysis was to determine the composition and the firing temperature of the bricks.

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