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This study was aimed to analyze the effect of two different megadoses of α-tocopherol (vit E) in the antioxidant activity and red and white blood series of Wistar rats after a 180-min ultraendurance probe. Three groups of 10 rats were analyzed; VEAG: acute administration of a megadoses of 5,000 IU/kg of vit E the day before the probe; VECG: chronic administration of 1,000 IU/kg/day of vit E for 6 days before the probe; CG: placebo administration. VEAG presented white cells, red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin values significantly higher than CG and VECG (p < 0.05). The mean corpuscular hemoglobin and lymphocytes concentrations were significantly higher in the VECG than in the other two groups (p < 0.05). Similarly, VEAG presented a significantly higher vit E blood concentration than VECG and CG (p < 0.05), and VECG than CG (p < 0.05). Finally, we found a significantly positive correlation between trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and red blood cells concentration (r = 0.374) and a significantly inverse correlation between TEAC and blood lactate concentration (r = −0.365). Our findings suggest that acute vit E megadoses could protect against transitory sport anemia symptoms and increase the white blood cell count in comparison with the chronic dose and control groups after an ultraendurance probe.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Francesco Del Prete, Trevor Steward, Juan F. Navas, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Tian P. S. Oei and José C. Perales

Background and aims

Abnormal cognitions are among the most salient domain-specific features of gambling disorder. The aims of this study were: (a) to examine and validate a Spanish version of the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS; Raylu & Oei, 2004) and (b) to examine associations between cognitive distortion levels, impulsivity, and gambling behavior.


This study first recruited a convenience sample of 500 adults who had gambled during the previous year. Participants were assessed using the Spanish version of GRCS (GRCS-S) questionnaire, the UPPS-P impulsivity questionnaire, measures of gambling behavior, and potentially relevant confounders. Robust confirmatory factor analysis methods on half the sample were used to select the best models from a hypothesis-driven set. The best solutions were validated on the other half, and the resulting factors were later correlated with impulsivity dimensions (in the whole n = 500 factor analysis sample) and clinically relevant gambling indices (in a separate convenience sample of 137 disordered and non-disordered gamblers; validity sample).


This study supports the original five-factor model, suggests an alternative four-factor solution, and confirms the psychometric soundness of the GRCS-S. Importantly, cognitive distortions consistently correlated with affect- or motivation-driven aspects of impulsivity (urgency and sensation seeking), but not with cognitive impulsivity (lack of premeditation and lack of perseverance).

Discussion and conclusions

Our findings suggest that the GRCS-S is a valid and reliable instrument to identify gambling cognitions in Spanish samples. Our results expand upon previous research signaling specific associations between gambling-related distortions and affect-driven impulsivity in line with models of motivated reasoning.

Open access