The objective of our project was to develop an analytical method which can measure the VOCs (volatile organic compounds) to find the important microbial metabolites to predict the spoilage during storage of fruits. As a model system plums (Prunus salicina) inoculated with Penicillium expansum were chosen. Analyses were performed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography (GC) — mass spectrometry (MS). The current study employs multivariate experimental design for the optimization of 4 factors, namely extraction time, desorption time, agitation and desorption temperature, by a 24-1 experimental design. Desorption time and agitation showed no significant effect on the amount of extracted concentration. For extraction time 25 min. and 250 °C for desorption temperature were chosen for the 2 important factors. Four kinds of samples (agar inoculated with P. expansum, plum inoculated with P. expansum, control plum and control agar) were measured for 4 days. Styrene, 1-methoxy-3-methylbenzene, methyl linoleate and a ‘non-identified aromatic compound’, were reported here as possible P. expansum marker compounds.
The Hungarian tax system has undergone significant changes in recent years. The weight of labour taxes decreased by 3.3 percentage points, while the weight of consumption taxes increased by 3.7 percentage points between 2007 and 2012. This type of tax shift is not a country-specific one, but its rate is one of the largest in Europe. This study gives a brief overview of literature, followed by a presentation of the Hungarian tax structure in an international comparison, and a summary of the main changes of the tax system and relating measures, which entered into force after 2010. Then, in addition to the tax centralization indicators published by the Eurostat, an adjusted tax centralization indicator for the EU states is presented, which eliminates the tax component of public spending and transfers, takes into account the mandatory private pension contribution and compares the adjusted tax burden to the corresponding private tax base.
Geophysical prospecting and surveys carried out in 2009–2010 in Nemescsó (County Vas, Hungary) revealed evidence of a structure with stone foundation walls located along the Amber Road, which can be interpreted as a road station. This building, with partially roofed court and corner risalits, can be directly compared with the street station at Sorokpolány. Both stations are located at a distance of 12.6 km (or 8.5 Roman miles) from Savaria/Szombathely along the Amber Road, with Nemescsó in the north of the Colonia and Sorokpolány in the south. Based on the find materials from the surveys, it can be tentatively suggested that the most intensive usage of the street station at Nemescsó took place during a time period between 160/180-250/270 A.D.
Authors:G. Csiffáry, P. Nagy, A. Kiss and N. Adányi
An amperometric biosensor for the detection of organophosphorus and carbamate type pesticides was developed. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme (electric eel) was immobilized in a thin-layer enzyme cell, and acetylthiocholine chloride (AcTCh) was used as substrate. Amperometric detection with glassy carbon electrode was performed in a stopped-flow FIA system. The inhibition effect of dichlorvos (DDVP), carbofuran, methomyl, and pirimicarb were examined: the linear measuring ranges were 0.001–0.1 μmol l−1, 0.001–0.1 μmol l−1, 0.2-1 μmol l−1, and 0.1–10 μmol l−1, respectively. Soil extract and apple juice were measured with spiking method. It was concluded that the biosensor can be used for screening pesticide residues in food and environmental samples.
Authors:K Baintner, P Kiss, S Bardocz and A Pusztai
Short-term effects of orally administered plant lectins, with special reference to the Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (phytohaemagglutinin, PHA), were studied in growing rats. The orally administered PHA elicited a dose-dependent accumulation of liquor with elevated pH in the proximal small intestine. Although the concentration of a-amylase activity did not change, total a-amylase activity slightly, but significantly increased in the gut. When a panel of plant lectins with different carbohydrate binding specificities was tested at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, most of them stimulated the secretion of liquor, but the total a-amylase activity was increased only by PHA, ConA or WGA.
Authors:K. Baintner, P Kiss, U Pfüller, Susan Bardocz and A Pusztai
A panel of orally administered lectins (100 mg/kg b.w.) of different binding specificities was tested for suppression of voluntary food consumption in prefasted rats. PHA isolectins (Phaseolus vulgaris) and RPA-I (Robinia pseudoacacia) were found to exert a marked and significant effect, but two other gut-binding lectins, i.e. SBA (Glycine max) and WGA (Triticum vulgare) and several non-binding lectins were ineffective. In cannulated rats PHA infused into the duodenum induced food suppression, i.e. binding of the lectin to the mouth or stomach was unnecessary. Suppression of food consumption lasted through the whole nocturnal feeding period, control (BSA) and experimental (PHA) curves of cumulative food consumption showed a V-like divergence. Suppression by PHA or RPA-I showed very similar time courses, but a long-lasting inhibition of gastric emptying was only observed in the RPA-treated animals. Intraperitoneally administered lectins suppressed food consumption much more effectively than the oral ones, whereas Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) had little or no effect. It is concluded that lectins can be used as effective tools for the modulation of food consumption and gastric emptying in experimental animals.