The effects of an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of different doses of sildenafil, a cyclic guanosin monophosphate (cGMP) specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE 5) inhibitor, on memory retention of young (2-month-old) and middle aged (12-month-old) male Wistar rats were investigated. Passive avoidance behaviour was studied in a one trial learning, step - through type, passive avoidance task utilizing the natural preference of rats for a dark environment. In each category (young or middle-aged) different groups of rats received vehicle or sildenafil (1, 3, 10, 20 mg*kg-1, i.p.) immediately after training and one group remained uninjected serwing as control. Retention latencies were measured 48 h later. To asses a possible non-specific proactive effect of sildenafil, the response latencies in a group of rats not receiving foot shock were also tested. The results showed that the post-training i.p. administration of sildenafil did not facilitate retention performance of a passive avoidance response in both young and middle aged rats compared to control or vehicle groups. Also, sildenafil did not affect response latencies in rats not having received the footshock on the training trial, indicating that sildenafil does not show a non-specific proactive affect on retention performance. The comparison of retention time between young and middle aged rats showed that the memory of the latter had been significantly reduced. In conclusion, this study suggests that sildenafil has no effects on memory retention in Wistar rats.
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) like captopril and enalapril, can induce persistant cough in man. Noscapine, an antitussive alkaloid, can be used to suppress ACEI-induced cough. Some workers have suggested a role for bradykinin in precipitation of ACE-induced cough. Work carried out in our laboratory has shown noscapine to be a non-competitive inhibitor of bradykinin in guinea pig ileum. It is therefore possible that noscapine suppresses cough by blocking the effect of bradykinin receptor activation in the airways. Guinea pigs were placed in a cough-chamber connected to an air pump and a pressure transducer. Capsaicin was sprayed into the chamber and cough was recorded as a distinctive change in air pressure inside the cough-chamber. Animals treated with 1 mg/kg captopril and enalapril for 7 days, showed increased cough response. Ten µg/kg FR190997, a non-peptide agonist of the bradykinin B2 receptor, also increased the cough response. Noscapine at 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg was able to reverse the effects of ACEI and FR190997. Naloxone, a specific opioid receptor inhibitor, did not block the antitussive effects of noscapine in enalapril or FR190997 treated guinea pigs. This antitussive effect of noscapine is not mediated via the µ, κ or δ opioid receptors. It is therefore possible that noscapine exerts its antitussive action by interfering with the bradykinin cough mediation.