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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was isolated from blood samples taken at a pig farm in Hungary from pigs showing clinical signs of the disease. The virus (ABV 32) was identified as belonging to the European genotype by using type-specific monoclonal antibodies. This was confirmed by comparing the sequence of the membrane protein gene (ORF 6) and the nucleocapsid gene (ORF 7) with the American VR2332 and the European LV genotype reference strain, respectively. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of the ORF 6 and ORF 7 of ABV 32 revealed five amino acid changes in both ORFs when compared with LV, of which two changes in ORF 7 were only found in the Spanish isolates. Additionally, the ORF 7 sequence was compared with corresponding sequences of a total of 21 other European strains. Phylogenetic analysis using the PHYLIP package confirmed the close relationship between the Hungarian and the Spanish isolates. Of all the isolates analysed, ABV 32 and LV were the least related.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: G. Bálint, P. Than, I. Domán, N. Wiegand, G. Horváth, and D. Lőrinczy


Meniscus degeneration is a very frequent disease of human beings mainly in the developed countries. The ability of the meniscus to participate in load bearing, shock absorption, joint lubrication, and joint stability depends on the maintenance of its structural integrity. Therefore the pathology of the degeneration has been subject of many publications before. These studies all agreed that the grade of the degeneration correlated with the patient’s age, weight, profession, and athletic activity [1]. These reviews also described the biochemical changes in the structure, too [2, 3]. In the current study authors examined degenerated human meniscus with differential scanning calorimetry and demonstrated thermal differences between healthy and intraoperatively removed pathological samples.

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Authors: László P. Biró, Zsolt Bálint, Zofia Vértesy, Krisztián Kertész, Géza I. Márk, Virginie Lousse, and Jean-Pol Vigneron

The complex photonic crystal type nanoarchitectures found in the wing scales of the male butterfly Cyanophrys remus were investigated structurally by electron microscopy and optically by reflectance spectroscopy. Both the vivid metallic blue of the dorsal scales and the matt, pea-green coloration of the ventral scales are attributed to photonic crystal type structures composed of chitin and air. The dorsal scales are single crystalline, while the ventral ones contain a large number of randomly oriented micron size single crystalline grains of face centered cubic inverse opal. The remarkable complexity and efficiency of biologic photonic crystals may provide clues in designing artificial structures with similar parameters.

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The effectiveness of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) to control root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) and weeds was tested for the first time in Hungary in two consecutive protected cucumber crops with application made only before the first crop. The treatments were Accolade EC (DMDS 94.1%) at 400 l/ha applied by driplines, Nemathorin 10 G (fosthiazate) at 30 kg/ha, and an untreated control. During the first cucumber cycle vigour-index, yield, root-gall index, Meloidogyne juveniles in the soil and germination of weeds were evaluated. All considered parameters were significantly improved by using DMDS compared respectively to the chemical standard and untreated control: (i) vigour-index of 7.0, 4.3 and 3.6; (ii) cumulative yield/sample of 45.1 kg, 30.9 kg, and 16.6 kg; root-gall index (RGI) of 1.2, 4.9, and 5.9; (iii) M. incognita J2/25 g soil of 0.25, 48.5 and 78.0, and (iv) number of weed seedlings/sample in the 20–30 cm soil profile of 1.1, 2.6, and 4.2. During the second cucumber crop, only root-gall index was evaluated. Results showed that a single DMDS treatment applied before the first crop had a prolonged beneficial effect on the following crop. In the second crop cycle, root gall indices were 5.58, 9.18, and 8.44 for DMDS treated plots, chemical control and untreated control, respectively.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Bálint Tóbiás, Bernadett Balla, János Kósa P., János Horányi, István Takács, Eszter Bölöny, Csaba Halászlaki, Zsolt Nagy, Gábor Speer, Balázs Járay, Eszter Székely, Roland Istók, and Péter Lakatos

Az elmúlt években több munkacsoportnak sikerült olyan szomatikus mutációkat (BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, KRAS génekben) és génátrendeződéseket (RET/PTC, PAX8/PPAR-gamma) azonosítani, amelyek összefüggést mutatnak a pajzsmirigydaganatok kialakulásával. Jelen vizsgálatban 11 személy 22 (11 kóros és 11 betegségmentes) intraoperatív pajzsmirigy-szövetmintáit elemezték. A RAS géncsalád és a BRAF gének szomatikus egypontos nukleotid polimorfizmusait LigthCycler olvadáspontanalízis-módszerrel, míg a génátrendeződéseket valós idejű polimeráz láncreakció módszerével vizsgálták. A daganatos mintákban 3 BRAF-, 2 NRAS-, 1 HRAS-mutációt, valamint 1 RET/PTC1 átrendeződést találtak. Az eredmények megerősítik a nemzetközi adatokat, miszerint ezek az egypontos nukleotidpolimorfizmusok és génátrendeződések megtalálhatók a daganatos pajzsmirigyszövetekben. Valószínűsíthető, hogy ezen genetikai vizsgálatokkal kiegészült citológiai vizsgálat segítheti a malignus göbök azonosítását, illetve elképzelhető, hogy prognosztikai faktorként előre jelezhetik a későbbi daganatos átalakulást. Orv. Hetil., 2011, 152, 672–677.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: P. Török, E. Tóth, K. Tóth, O. Valkó, B. Deák, B. Kelbert, P. Bálint, Sz. Radócz, A. Kelemen, J. Sonkoly, T. Miglécz, G. Matus, A. Takács, V. A. Molnár, K. Süveges, L. Papp, L. Papp Jr., Z. Tóth, B. Baktay, G. Málnási Csizmadia, I. Oláh, E. Peti, J. Schellenberger, O. Szalkovszki, R. Kiss, and B. TÓthmérész

For understanding local and regional seed dispersal and plant establishment processes and for considering the ecotypes and other forms of specific variability, hard data of locally or regionally measured traits are necessary. We provided newly measured seed weight data of 193 taxa, out of which 24 taxa had not been represented in the SID, LEDA or BiolFlor databases. Our new measurements and formerly published data of locally collected seed weight records together covers over 70% of the Pannonian flora. However, there is still a considerable lack in seed weight data of taxonomically problematic genera, even though they are represented in the Pannonian flora with a relatively high number of species and/or subspecies (e.g. Sorbus, Rosa, Rubus, Crataegus and Hieracium). Our regional database contains very sporadic data on aquatic plants (including also numerous invasive species reported from Hungary and neighbouring countries) and some rare weeds distributed in the southwestern part of the country. These facts indicate the necessity of further seed collection and measurements.

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