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  • Author or Editor: P. Balasubramanian x
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Abstract  

Neutron irradiation of naturally occurring Yb produces small amounts of carrier-free177Lu activity. Cation exchange chromatography in the displacement development mode using Dowex-50X8, 200–400 mesh resin, and Zn2+ as the separating ion was used to separate177Lu produced in a neutron irradiated Yb target. 0.04M -hydroxyisobutyric acid at pH 4.6±2 and temperature 26±1°C was used to elute carrier-free177Lu in 70% yield and at a radionuclidic purity greater than 99%.

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Abstract  

A simple procedure is described for the fabrication of mCi level strong sources of147Pm radioisotope on a noble metal substrate like Palladium as a source for β-ray thickness gauge. The procedure is based on the principle of internal electro-deposition of147Pm from aqueous solutions containing147Pm3+ ions, using metallic magnesium for the purpose. Investigations conducted towards ascertaining the adherence of the147Pm radioactivity onto the palladium substrate. Leaching studies conducted on these source indicated that the radioactive film is satisfactorily adherent to the palladium substrate, suggesting that the method can be used for fabricating satisfactorily safe high β-activity sources of147Pm contained in small active dimensions. Results of leaching studies keeping the sources fully immersed in boiling water for 15 minutes are also presented.

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Abstract  

An anodically oxidised layer of aluminium was found to be a satisfactory substrate for holding millicurie amounts of carrier-free147Pm activity, which is used as a source of -radiation in -ray thickness gauges. The sources fabricated by this method showed satisfactory performance regarding leaching and adherence of the radioactivity held up in the oxide layer. Details regarding the anodic oxidation conditions used for making these source substrates are given. Leaching studies conducted on these sources indicated influence of the acid concentration at which147Pm activity was deposited in the oxide layer. Better performance characteristics of these sources could be achieved whenever147Pm activity was absorbed in the oxide layer under near neutral conditions of acidity.

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Abstract  

A procedure is described for the large scale production of radiochemically and radionuclidically pure153Sm economically, from neutron irradiated natural Sm targets. Cation-exchange chromatography using 200–400 mesh Dowex-50×8 resin in the elution mode was used with 0.2M -hydroxyisobutyric acid (-HIBA) as the eluent at pH 4.7±1 and at 26±1 °C for this purpose. Typical decontaminations of carrier-free(155+156)Eu radioactive impurities, of the order of 5×102, could be achieved in individual fractions, from millicurie amounts of153Sm activity produced in milligram quantities of heavily neutron-irradiated natural Sm targets. Even though the153Sm yields were at about 3% at these decontamination levels of impurities, the yields increased to an average of about 50% at about 95% level of decontamination of these impurities. It has been shown that the method is successful for producing radiochemically and radionuclidically pure153Sm in sufficiently high radioactive concentrations for its probable conversion into153SmEDTMP complex, a potential radiopharmaceutical useful in the palliative therapy of metastatic bone cancer.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
A. Palamalai
,
S. Mohan
,
M. Sampath
,
R. Srinivasan
,
P. Govindan
,
A. Chinnusamy
,
V. Raman
, and
G. Balasubramanian

Abstract  

Some batches of233U oxide product obtained from the reprocessing treatment of irradiated thorium rods, called J-rods in our plant, have been found to contain thorium as much as 85% and iron above 5% as impurities. This product has to be purified before sending for fabrication of the fuel. The present purification method consists of the following three steps: (1) preferential dissolution of U3O8 as compared to thoria, (2) a novel solvent extraction process, and (3) preferential precipitation of Th as oxalate leaving behind the entire U in the filtrate. Development and application of the present purification method to the above233U oxide proxduct are presented in this paper.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
E. Sapi
,
K. Balasubramanian
,
A. Poruri
,
J. S. Maghsoudlou
,
K. M. Socarras
,
A. V. Timmaraju
,
K. R. Filush
,
K. Gupta
,
S. Shaikh
,
P. A. S. Theophilus
,
D. F. Luecke
,
A. MacDonald
, and
B. Zelger

Lyme borreliosis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, has grown into a major public health problem. We recently identified a novel morphological form of B. burgdorferi, called biofilm, a structure that is well known to be highly resistant to antibiotics. However, there is no evidence of the existence of Borrelia biofilm in vivo; therefore, the main goal of this study was to determine the presence of Borrelia biofilm in infected human skin tissues. Archived skin biopsy tissues from borrelial lymphocytomas (BL) were reexamined for the presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato using Borrelia-specific immunohistochemical staining (IHC), fluorescent in situ hybridization, combined fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)–IHC, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and fluorescent and atomic force microscopy methods. Our morphological and histological analyses showed that significant amounts of Borrelia-positive spirochetes and aggregates exist in the BL tissues. Analyzing structures positive for Borrelia showed that aggregates, but not spirochetes, expressed biofilm markers such as protective layers of different mucopolysaccharides, especially alginate. Atomic force microscopy revealed additional hallmark biofilm features of the Borrelia/alginate-positive aggregates such as inside channels and surface protrusions. In summary, this is the first study that demonstrates the presence of Borrelia biofilm in human infected skin tissues.

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