The influence of immersion fluid temperature on the development of the chicken embryo was studied on the day most commonly used for treating incubated eggs in teratological trials. Embryonated eggs were immersed in tap water for 30 min on the 12th day of incubation at 22–25 °C or at incubation temperature without a waiting time or after 30 min. The incubation was then continued and the eggs were processed on day 19 of the incubation period. Treatment of eggs at 22–25 °C caused a significant increase in embryonic mortality, while the 30-min waiting time did not exert an influence on embryogenesis.
Authors:T. Varga, I. Hlubik, L. Várnagy, P. Budai, and E. Molnár
The purpose of this work was to determine the individual and combined effects of insecticide Sumithion 50 EC (50% fenitrothion) and herbicide Fusilade S (12.5% fluazifop-P-butyl) on the development of pheasant embryos. Eggs were treated by injection of various concentrations of pesticides into the air space on day 12 of incubation. Pathological examination of embryos was carried out on day 23 of the hatching period. Mortality rate, body weight data and morphological alterations were evaluated after the macroscopic examination. The skeletal staining method was used to detect deformities. The two pesticides used in combination moderated the toxic/teratogenic effects of individual treatment.
Authors:Andrea Kárpáti, I. Takács, L. Várnagy, P. Budai, and E. Molnár
The teratogenic effects of lead acetate (Trial 1) and the possible teratogenic effect of this compound administered in combination with a fungicide containing 80% mancozeb (Trial 2) were studied in rats. The test substances were administered by gavage on Days 6-15 of gestation. In Trial 1, five groups were treated with lead acetate administered at doses of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 10.0 and 1000.0 mg/kg body weight (bwkg), respectively. In Trial 2, lead acetate was applied at doses of 0.1, 10.0 and 1000.0 mg/bwkg, respectively. In the latter case the dose of the pesticide was 750 mg/bwkg in all treated groups. Lead acetate was not teratogenic after a single administration. Combined administration of lead acetate and mancozeb gave rise to the following toxic effects: average maternal weight decreased during pregnancy, the ratio of live fetuses decreased after the two lowest doses, and fetal mortality increased in the lowest and in the highest dose groups. The ratio of fetal resorption was higher in all the treated groups than in the control group. A significant decrease occurred in average fetal and placental weight in each treated group as compared to the control. Maternal toxicity was expressed in paralysis of the hindlimbs in the two lowest dose groups. Maternal mortality was between 16.7 and 23.3% at the three dose levels. Phocomelia and hernia cerebri occurred as characteristic fetal developmental anomalies in all the treated groups. It is concluded that the joint administration of lead acetate and a mancozeb-containing fungicide can cause maternal toxicity, embryotoxicity and characteristic teratogenic effects.
Authors:L. Várnagy, P. Budai, Á. Zaják, T. Varga, and E. Molnár
Toxicological studies on wild animals play an important role in the ecotoxicological examination of pesticides. The applied model tests enable the assessment of toxicological consequences with particular regard to the life and nutrition of wild animals in the ploughed field among plants treated with pesticides. The application of different pesticide formulations on plough-land may pose a simultaneous chemical burden to wild birds. In this model study, manifestations of the interaction between an insecticide and a herbicide were studied in pheasants. The birds were placed on lucerne in cages (48 m2) and sprayed once. The applied doses were: Sumithion 50 EC 1 litre/ha + Fusilade S 6 litres/ha (practical doses) and Sumithion 50 EC 5 litres/ha + Fusilade S 30 litres/ha. The analytically determined pesticide concentration of the lucerne was taken as a basis in the further treatment of fodder. The fodder of pheasants contained the following chemicals: 85 mg/kg Sumithion 50 EC + 510 mg/kg Fusilade S and 425 mg/kg Sumithion 50 EC + 2250 mg/kg Fusilade S. Sporadic deaths observed among the pheasants were of traumatic origin and not due to a toxic effect. The decrease of body weight was significant only at the higher dose levels. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of the blood decreased significantly in both dose groups. On the basis of the results obtained it can be established that at the dose level used in the practice the pesticides studied do not give rise to a toxic interaction in pheasants.
Authors:L. Várnagy, P. Budai, E. Molnár, and et al.
The reproductive toxicity of lead acetate and of a fungicide formulation (Dithane M-45) containing 80% mancozeb was studied on rats. Lead acetate was applied in the feed in the following dose groups: control, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 mg/kg of diet. The three treatment groups received, in addition to the above doses of lead acetate, 4,500 mg/kg Dithane M-45 in the diet. The method was based on the OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals No. 415 (1981). Clinical symptoms and mortality were not found in the parent generation. The body weight of female animals decreased significantly before the pregnancy period. This tendency was also seen in males after the combination treatment. At the two high dose levels a remarkable body weight increase was seen in the female animals during the lactation period. As a result of treatment, decreased body weight of offspring was measured during the lactation period. No gross pathological changes were seen. Histological examination showed general tubulonephrosis in the experimental animals. It can be established that the administration of Dithane M-45 did not enhance the reproductive toxicity of lead acetate.
Authors:L. Várnagy, P. Budai, Erzsébet Molnár, Mrs I. Füzesi, and T. Fáncsi
The insecticide formulation BI 58 EC was tested for teratogenicity in chicken embryos, with particular reference to degradation of the active ingredient (dimethoate) after the treatment of embryonated eggs. The pesticide was diluted in water to a concentration level of 0.8%, and the emulsion was injected into the air space in a volume of 0.1 ml/egg, or hen’s eggs were treated by the immersion technique. Residues of dimethoate were measured in the samples on days 13, 15 and 19 of the incubation of chicken embryos, and morphological examinations were performed simultaneously. Analytical chemistry data indicated a slower degradation of dimethoate in embryos after the immersion of eggs, and cyllosis was remarkable in this group among the sporadic developmental anomalies. The liver tissues ofboth treated groups exhibited severe fatty infiltration.