Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author or Editor: P. C. Favaro x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search

Summary  

Trace elements were determined in 27 brands of nail polish using INAA so as to estimate the impact of nail polish remainders when using (finger, toe) nail clippings as a bioindicator for epidemiological studies. Fe was found to be present up to almost 1.7% in one brand. No unambiguous correlation between trace elements and color was established, though transparent polish has the lowest trace element concentrations. An estimate of the maximum effect (no removal of the paint) indicates that over-estimates of some trace element levels in nail with more than 200.000% may occur. This study showed that if nail clippings will be used to study trace elements, very high demands have to be set to the efficiency and selectivity of the cleaning procedure.

Restricted access

Summary  

Cubatão River is located in Santos Basin, São Paulo State, Brazil. This region is characterized by the occurrence of estuaries and mangrove. Due to its location, near the coastal line, it is also an important industrial area, where phosphate fertilizer plants, petrol refineries, and chemical and steel industries are present. Such human activities contribute to the enhancement of elemental composition in sediments and, in some cases, also increase the radionuclide concentrations, the so called Technologically Enhanced Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM). The contamination of land and sediments by TENORM is of major concern. The activity concentration of U and Th series radionuclides was determined in five sediment samples from Cubatão River. The activity concentration ratio was also determined. Equilibrium was observed for the ratio 234U/238U. The activity ratios of Th/238U, 228Ra/226Ra and 210Pb/226Ra were higher than the unity. In the first two cases, the observed values are due to the higher activity of Th in the sediment and in the last case are probably due to the atmospheric deposition of 210Pb.

Restricted access

Summary  

In the last decades considerable attention has been given to technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry, located in Cubatão, São Paulo State, Southwest Brazil. This industry is responsible for the production of 69 million tons of phosphogypsum waste, which is stockpiled in the surrounding environment. This waste concentrates radionuclides of the natural series originally present in the phosphate rocks used as raw material. This study aims to evaluate the environmental impact of such activities in the sediments of the estuarine system. Contents of natural radionuclides from thorium and uranium series were measured in sediments from Cubatão estuarine system, using high-resolution gamma-spectrometry. U and Th were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). It was observed that U and Th concentration is higher in the rivers close to the phosphogypsum piles, at least five points were identified as being affected by anthropogenic factors.

Restricted access

Summary  

Pantanal, located in the central region of South America, is recognized as one of the world's largest freshwater wetlands. In order to verify possible changes in this environment, a study was undertaken in Nhecolândia Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Two sediment cores from the Salina do Meio pond (SM1 and SM2) and one core from a small flood land named Baía (B5) were collected in 2001. The elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Cluster and factorial analysis were applied to the chemical data. The sedimentation rate in the SM2 core was determined by 210Pb method and the mean value found was 0.61 cm . y-1. The results obtained in the present study showed that recent geochemical processes such as desorption, precipitation and dissolution can contribute for the high water alkalinity and salinity in the saline ponds.

Restricted access